As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 13, 2021

Registration Statement No. 333-

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

Form F-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

4D pharma plc

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

England and Wales   2834   Not applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

 

 

5th Floor, 9 Bond Court

Leeds

LS1 2JZ

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0) 113 895 0130

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Cogency Global Inc.

10 East 40th Street, 10th Floor

New York, N.Y. 10016

Tel: + 1(800)221-0102

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

Copies of all communications, including communications sent to agent for service, should be sent to:

 

Steven V. Bernard

Melissa Rick

Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati

Professional Corporation

650 Page Mill Road

Palo Alto, California
94303-1050

(650) 493-9300

Duncan Peyton
Chief Executive Officer

4D pharma plc

5th Floor, 9 Bond Court

Leeds

LS1 2JZ

United Kingdom

+44(0) 113 895 0130

Charles Waddell

Pinsent Masons LLP

30 Crown Place

Earl Street

London EC2A 4ES

United Kingdom

+44(0) 20 7418 7000

 

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to public:

 

As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

 

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Emerging growth company ☒

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered 

Amount to be

Registered(1)

  

Proposed Maximum

Offering Price Per Unit

  

Proposed Maximum

Aggregate Offering Price

  

Amount of

Registration

Fee

 
Ordinary Shares, nominal value £0.0025 per share(2)   16,268,040   $1.53(3)  $24,890,101(3)  $2,716 

 

(1) Pursuant to Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act, this Registration Statement shall also cover any additional of the registrant’s ordinary shares that become issuable as a result of any stock dividend, stock split, recapitalization, or other similar transaction effected without the receipt of consideration that results in an increase to the number of the registrant’s outstanding ordinary shares, as applicable.
   
(2) Represents ordinary shares of the registrant issuable upon the exercise of the 4D Pharma warrants. Each such warrant currently is exercisable for 3.76575 of the Registrant’s ordinary shares at a price of $1.53 per whole ordinary share. These ordinary shares are represented by American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, each of which represents eight ordinary shares of the registrant. ADSs issuable upon deposit of the ordinary shares registered hereby have been registered pursuant to a separate registration statement on Form F-6 (File No. 333-253268).
   
(3)

Pursuant to Rule 457(g) under the Securities Act and solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee, the price per share is based upon the warrant exercise price of $1.53 per ordinary share.

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to such Section 8(a), shall determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information contained in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. No securities may be sold pursuant to this prospectus until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission with respect to such securities has been declared effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and no offers to buy these securities are being solicited in any jurisdiction where their offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED SEPTEMBER 13, 2021

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

16,268,040 Ordinary Shares

Represented by up to

2,033,505 American Depositary Shares

 

 

 

We have filed a registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part with respect to the issuance of an aggregate of 16,268,040 ordinary shares issuable on the exercise of outstanding warrants (the “Assumed Warrants”) that we assumed in connection with our merger with Longevity Acquisition Corporation. The Assumed Warrants are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “LBPSW.” Each Assumed Warrant is exercisable for 3.76575 ordinary shares at an exercise price of $1.53 per ordinary share. Ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the Assumed Warrants are deliverable in the form of American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”), with each ADS currently representing eight ordinary shares. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.”

 

Our ordinary shares are currently traded on AIM, a market operated by the London Stock Exchange, under the symbol “DDDD.” Our ADSs, each representing eight ordinary shares of 4D pharma plc, are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “LBPS.” The ADSs began trading on Nasdaq on March 22, 2021. The closing price of our ordinary shares on AIM on September 10, 2021 was £0.79 per ordinary share, which is equivalent to a price of $1.09 per ordinary share based on the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on September 3, 2021. The closing price of our ADSs on Nasdaq on September 10, 2021 was $8.27 per ADS.

 

We are a “foreign private issuer,” and an “emerging growth company” each as defined under the federal securities laws, and, as such, we will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. See the section entitled “Prospectus Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer” for additional information.

 

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Investing in our ordinary shares or our ADSs representing our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. Before buying any ordinary shares or ADSs you should carefully read the discussion of material risks of investing in such securities in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 of this prospectus.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION iv
   
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS v
   
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 1
   
THE REGISTERED SHARES 6
   
RISK FACTORS 7
   
USE OF PROCEEDS 64
   
DIVIDEND POLICY 65
   
CAPITALIZATION 66
   
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA 67
   
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 68
   
BUSINESS 82
   
MANAGEMENT 128
   
BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES 136
   
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PERSON TRANSACTIONS 137
   
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES 138
   
DESCRIPTION OF OUR AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES 150
   
MATERIAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS 164
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 170
   
EXPENSES OF THIS OFFERING 171
   
LEGAL MATTERS 172
   
EXPERTS 172
   
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 173
   
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS F-1

 

i

 

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). This prospectus relates to the issuance by us of the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of any Assumed Warrants.

 

We are responsible for the information contained in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we may prepare or authorize. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information, and we do not take any responsibility for, or provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not making an offer to sell ADSs or ordinary shares in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale thereof is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus.

 

We may also provide a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement to add information to, or update or change information contained in, this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement together with the additional information to which we refer you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

For investors outside the United States: We have not taken any action to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction other than the United States where action for that purpose is required. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the ADSs and ordinary shares and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

 

We are a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales and a majority of our outstanding securities are owned by non-U.S. residents. Under the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, we are currently eligible for treatment as a “foreign private issuer.” As a foreign private issuer, we will not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as domestic registrants whose securities are registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “4D Pharma,” the “Group,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to 4D pharma plc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to “Longevity” refer to Longevity Acquisition Corporation.

 

CERTAIN DEFINTIONS

 

Unless otherwise indicated and except where the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to:

 

  ADR” are to American Depositary Receipt.
     
  ADS” are to American Depositary Shares.
     
  CMS” are to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
     
  CNS” are to the central nervous system.
     
  CROs” are to contract research organizations.
     
  DSMB” are to the data safety monitoring board.
     
 

EGC” are to the Emerging Growth Company.

     
  EMA” are to the European Medicines Agency.

 

ii

 

 

  FDA” are to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
     
  HHS” are to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
     
  HNSCC” are to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
     
  IBD” are to inflammatory bowel disease.
     
  IBS” are to irritable bowel syndrome.
     
  ICI” are to immune checkpoint inhibitor.
     
  Keytruda” are to ICI Keytruda (pembrolizumab) made by MSD.
     
  LBPs” are to live biotherapeutic products.
     
  MCBs” are to master cell banks.
     
  Merck” are to Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
     
  MHRA” are to the United Kingdom’s Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency.
     
  MS” are to multiple sclerosis.
     
  MSD” are to Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
     
  MSI-H” are to microsatellite instable.
     
  NSCLC” are to non-small cell lung cancer.
     
  RCC” are to renal cell carcinoma.
     
  TNBC” are to triple negative breast cancer.
     
  UC” are to urothelial carcinoma.
     
  USPTO” are to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

 

iii

 

 

TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES AND SERVICE MARKS

 

We own or have rights to trademarks, trade names and service marks that they use in connection with the operation of our business. In addition, our names, logos and website names and addresses are its trademarks or service marks. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, in some cases, the trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus are listed without the applicable ®, ™ and SM symbols, but they will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks.

 

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION

 

Financial Statements

 

This prospectus contains our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 2020 and 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 (our “audited consolidated financial statements”), prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). Our financial information is presented in U.S. dollars.

 

Currencies and Exchange Rates

 

References in this prospectus to “USD,” “U.S. dollars,” “dollars,” “$” or “cents” are to the currency of the United States and references to “GBP,” “pounds sterling,” “pounds,” “£,” “pence” or “p” are to the currency of the United Kingdom. There are 100 pence to each pound.

 

In this prospectus, unless otherwise stated, pounds sterling have been translated into U.S. dollars at the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in pounds sterling as certified for custom purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, on the date indicated. On August 27, 2021, the noon buying rate in New York City for cable transfers in pounds sterling as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was $1.3769 per £1.00. These translations should not be construed as a representation that the U.S. dollar amounts actually represent, or could be converted into, pounds sterling at the rates indicated.

 

Rounding

 

We have made rounding adjustments to reach some of the figures included in this prospectus. As a result, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them.

 

Industry and Market Data

 

The industry and market data relating to our business included in this prospectus on our internal estimates and research, as well as publications, research, surveys and studies conducted by independent third parties not affiliated to us. We include data obtained from Globaldata Service (found at https://www.globaldata.com/).

 

Industry publications, studies and surveys generally state that they were prepared based on sources believed to be reliable, although there is no guarantee of accuracy. While we believe that each of these studies and publications is reliable, we have not independently verified the market and industry data provided by third-party sources. In addition, while we believe our internal research is reliable, such research has not been verified by any independent source. We believe that all market data in this prospectus is reliable, accurate and complete. We note that assumptions underlying industry and market data are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those discussed under “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” of this prospectus.

 

iv

 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains or may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Securities Exchange Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and the Exchange Act. Forward looking terms such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “plan,” “potential,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “project,” “target,” “believe,” “estimate” or “expect” and other words, terms and phrases of similar nature are often intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements are statements which are not historical fact and involve estimates, expectations, projections, goals, forecasts, assumptions, risks and uncertainties, and include, but are not limited to, statements regarding intent, belief or current expectations. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other materials released to the public.

 

Forward-looking statements are based on the current beliefs and assumptions of the management of 4D Pharma and on information currently available to such management. While the management of 4D Pharma believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable as and when made, there can be no assurance that future developments will be as anticipated. Such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to various factors, including, but not limited to, those identified under the section “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. These risks and uncertainties include factors relating to:

 

  the process of discovering, developing and commercializing drugs that are safe and effective for use as human therapeutics and operating as an early clinical stage company;
     
  our ability to develop, initiate or complete preclinical studies and clinical trials for, obtain approvals for and commercialize any of our therapeutic candidates;
     
  the timing, progress and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix, Thetanix or any other of our therapeutic candidates, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work and the period during which the results of the trials will become available;
     
  changes in our plans to develop and commercialize our therapeutic candidates;
     
  the potential for clinical trials of MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix, Thetanix or any other of our therapeutic candidates to differ from preclinical, preliminary or expected results;
     
  our ability to enroll patients and volunteers in clinical trials, timely and successfully completion of those trials and receipt of necessary regulatory approvals;
     
  our ability to continue to manufacture sufficient quantity of our therapeutic candidates and to scale manufacturing to clinical-scale and small-to-mid-scale commercial supply;
     
  negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, including clinical trials;
     
  the risk of the occurrence of any event, change or other circumstance that could give rise to the termination of the strategic collaboration agreement with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center or the research collaboration and option to license agreement with Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.;
     
  our ability to raise any additional funding we will need to continue to pursue our business and product development plans;
     
  regulatory developments in the United Kingdom, the United States and other countries;
     
  our reliance on third parties, including contract research organizations;

 

v

 

 

  our ability to claim UK Research and Development tax credits;
     
  our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our therapeutic candidates;
     
  the future composition of our management team and directors and those of our subsidiaries;
     
  competition in the industry in which we operate;
     
  other risk factors discussed under “Risk Factors.”

 

The foregoing list is not intended to be exhaustive, and there may be other key risks that are not listed above that are not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial. Should one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements made by us contained in this prospectus. As a result of the foregoing, readers should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements.

 

Forward looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements or other information contained in this report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are advised, however, to consult any additional disclosures we make in our reports on Form 6-K filed with the SEC. Please also see the cautionary discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors.”

 

ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

 

4D Pharma is a corporation organized under the laws of England and Wales. A substantial portion of 4D Pharma’s assets and most of its directors and executive officers are located and reside, respectively, outside the United States. Because of the location of 4D Pharma’s assets and board members, it may not be possible for investors to serve process within the United States upon 4D Pharma or such persons with respect to matters arising under the United States federal securities laws or to enforce against 4D Pharma or persons located outside the United States judgments of United States courts asserted under the civil liability provisions of the United States federal securities laws.

 

4D Pharma understands that there is doubt as to the enforceability in the United Kingdom, in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of United States courts, of civil liabilities predicated solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States insofar as they are fines or penalties. In addition, awards of punitive damages in actions brought in the United States or elsewhere may be unenforceable in the United Kingdom by reason of being a penalty.

 

4D Pharma has appointed Cogency Global Inc. as its agent to receive service of process in any action against it in any state or federal court in the State of New York.

 

vi

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights information contained in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information you should consider in making your investment decision. You should read the entire prospectus carefully before making an investment in our ordinary shares. You should carefully consider, among other things, our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Business,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

Overview

 

4D Pharma was established with the mission of leveraging the deep and varied interactions between the human body and the gut microbiome, the trillions of bacteria that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract, to develop an entirely novel class of drug: Live Biotherapeutics. We are focused on understanding how individual strains of bacteria function and how their interactions with the human host can be exploited to treat particular diseases, from cancer, respiratory, central nervous system, immunological and gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.

 

To further advance our product pipeline, we have developed MicroRx, our proprietary discovery platform. MicroRx interrogates our proprietary library of bacterial isolates for therapeutic functionality and comprehensively characterizes the bacterial isolates using a range of complementary tools and technologies. By developing a thorough understanding of the functionality and mechanism of action of our therapeutic candidates, we can develop LBPs that target disease pathology rationally and effectively, and expand our robust sector-leading patent portfolio with additional patents relating to LBP functionality.

 

To this end, our key clinical focus areas include immuno-oncology, IBS and respiratory disease, with preclinical candidates targeting CNS and autoimmune conditions. We have completed three clinical trials and currently have five more ongoing. One of our key focus areas is immuno-oncology, and with our lead immuno-oncology therapeutic candidate, MRx0518, we delivered what we believe to be the first positive proof of-concept data with a LBP in the treatment of cancer. MRx0518 is being evaluated in three ongoing clinical trials, including a Phase I/II clinical trial in solid tumors in combination with Keytruda (supplied under a free of charge supply agreement) in patients with advance or metastatic NSCLC, RCC and UC who are refractory to prior anti-PD-1/ PD-L1 therapy. Additionally, new cohorts of 10 patients with new tumor types are being enrolled in the study, including patients with TNBC, HNSCC and MSI-H high tumors. We successfully completed Part A of this Phase I/II clinical trial and Part B of the clinical trial is currently enrolling up to an additional 30 patients per tumor type and will assess clinical benefit in addition to safety. We also completed recruitment for Part A of an ongoing Phase I trial of MRx0518 as a monotherapy in patients undergoing surgical resection of solid tumors, which is being conducted at Imperial College London. We are currently redesigning Part B of this Phase I clinical trial after initial data from Part A expressed showed encouraging early biomarker readouts. Our third clinical trial of MRx0518 is a Phase I clinical trial of MRx0518 in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer in combination with hypofractionated radiotherapy, which is part of our strategic collaboration with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Meanwhile, we are engaged in business development activities with the goal of expanding the development of MRx0518 into new settings and are actively exploring additional collaboration opportunities. In February 2021, we entered into agreement with Merck KGaA and Pfizer, who co-developed and co-commercialized Bavencio (avelumab) to supply Bavencio free of charge in a future clinical trial.

 

 

1
 

 

In our gastro-intestinal disease portfolio, we currently have two LBP candidates that have completed early clinical evaluation, Blautix and Thetanix. Blautix is being developed as the first therapeutic to treat patients with IBS, regardless of clinical subtype. The Phase II clinical trial results for Blautix provide a foundation for the continued development of Blautix as the first therapeutic with the potential to treat both major subtypes of IBS, and this data will advance regulatory engagement around the design of a potential Phase III pivotal program. Thetanix is a single strain human gut commensal bacteria that has an anti-inflammatory mechanism and is currently under investigation for the treatment of IBD. Thetanix has an Orphan Drug Designation for pediatric Crohn’s disease from the FDA. We have successfully completed a Phase Ib clinical trial of Thetanix in pediatric Crohn’s disease patients, and we are exploring strategic options for Thetanix, including parallel development in pediatric and adult populations in both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, as well as potential partners.

 

We are also developing therapeutic candidates for our respiratory disease portfolio. MicroRx enabled the discovery of MRx-4DP0004, an immunomodulatory single strain LBP candidate that demonstrated marked effects in preclinical trials of respiratory inflammation, particularly in the lungs. A Phase I/II clinical trial of MRx-4DP0004 in partly controlled asthma is ongoing, and to our knowledge the world’s first clinical trial of an LBP in the indication. We had also begun investigating MRx4DP0004 in a Phase II clinical trial as an oral therapeutic to prevent or reduce the hyperinflammatory response in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Although this Phase II trial of MRx-4D0004 received expedited approval from the MHRA in April 2020, we decided to voluntarily discontinue enrollment in this Phase II trial of MRx-4D0004 in order to focus on our core LBP pipeline candidates due to the increase in vaccination rates, declining hospitalization rates, and progress in the MRx-4DP0004 asthma clinical trial. 

 

We continue to utilize the MicroRx platform to discover promising new LBP candidates for major diseases with significant unmet need. As part of our CNS portfolio, we have identified novel LBP candidates that act upon multiple aspects of the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases in preclinical models, including gut-barrier function, neuroinflammation and protection of neurons critical to healthy CNS function. Accordingly, we are currently planning a first-in-human clinical study for our lead CNS therapeutic candidate, MRx0029, in Parkinson’s disease patients. As part of our commitment to CNS research and drug development, in December 2020, we became an industry partner of the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative, a longitudinal study sponsored by The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research to better understand Parkinson’s disease and accelerate the development of new treatments.

 

In addition to our internal development programs, we are seeking to realize the value and potential of the MicroRx platform through collaborations in new areas. In 2019, we entered into a research collaboration and option to license agreement with MSD to discover and develop LBPs for vaccines. This collaboration pairs our proprietary MicroRx platform with MSD’s expertise in the development and commercialization of novel vaccines, to discover and develop LBPs as vaccines in up to three undisclosed indications. See “Business—Collaborations—Research Collaboration and Option to License Agreement with Merck.”

 

In 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic hit the United Kingdom, United States and other regions worldwide, affecting almost all aspects of the economy including the pharmaceutical industry in which we operate. In response we have been proactive, putting the safety of staff and patients first. We have made good use of technology to minimize disruption to our operations while protecting our staff. However, as has been seen across the biopharma industry, there have been unavoidable impacts on certain activities, resulting in some potential delays to expected clinical readouts. We continue to monitor the situation closely and will provide updates as and when the expected resolution of the situation becomes clearer. 

 

2
 

 

Recent Developments

 

On July 29, 2021, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (the “Loan Agreement”), by and between us, as borrower, our subsidiaries party thereto as co-borrowers, the lenders party thereto (the “Lenders”) and Oxford Finance Luxembourg S.À R.L, as collateral agent for the Lenders (the “Collateral Agent”). The Loan Agreement provides for a term loan facility maturing on July 1, 2026 in an aggregate principal amount of up to $30.0 million. $12.5 million of such term loan was available and borrowed on the closing date. $7.5 million of such term loan is available upon the achievement of certain milestones. The remaining $10 million of such term loan is uncommitted and available at the discretion of the Lenders. The proceeds of the term loans may be used for general corporate purposes.

 

The term loans accrue interest at a per annum rate equal to the sum of (i) the greater of (A) the 30 day U.S. Dollar LIBOR reported in The Wall Street Journal on the last business day of the month that immediately precedes the month in which the interest will accrue and (B) 0.10% and (ii) 8.15%. From the closing date through July 31, 2021, the interest rate was set at 8.25%. The term loans are interest only through September 1, 2023 or, subject to the achievement of certain milestones, September 1, 2024.

 

We will be required to make a final payment fee of 6.00% or, if the interest only period is extended following the achievement of certain milestones, 6.50%, of the amount of the term loan drawn. The final payment fee is payable on the earlier of (i) the prepayment of the term loan, (ii) the acceleration of the term loan, or (iii) the maturity date. At our option, we may elect to prepay the loans subject to a prepayment fee equal to the following percentage of the principal amount being prepaid: 3% if a term loan is prepaid during the first 12 months following the date of borrowing, 2% if a term loan is prepaid after 12 months but prior to 24 months following the date of borrowing, and 1% if a term loan is prepaid any time after 24 months following the borrowing date but prior to the maturity date.

 

Our obligations under the Loan Agreement are secured by substantially all of our assets and certain of our subsidiaries formed in Scotland, Ireland and the State of Delaware, United States.

 

The Loan Agreement contains customary affirmative and negative covenants, including covenants limiting our abilities and our subsidiaries’ abilities to, among other things, incur debt, grant liens, make acquisitions, undertake changes in control, make investments, make certain dividends or distributions, repurchase stock, dispose of assets, and enter into transactions with affiliates, in each case, subject to limitations and exceptions set forth in the Loan Agreement. Subject to the satisfaction of certain equity raise conditions, we are also required to maintain compliance with a minimum liquidity covenant.

 

The Loan Agreement also contains customary events of default that include, among other things, certain payment defaults, covenant defaults, a material adverse change default, insolvency and bankruptcy defaults, cross defaults to other agreements, inaccuracy of representations and warranties defaults, a delisting default and government approvals defaults. If an event of default exists, the Lender may require immediate payment of all obligations under the Loan Agreement and may exercise certain other rights and remedies provided for under the Loan Agreement, the other loan documents and applicable law. Under certain circumstances, a default interest rate will apply on all obligations during the existence of an event of default under the Loan Agreement at a per annum rate equal to 5.00% above the applicable interest rate.

 

In addition, in connection with the Loan Agreement, we issued the Lenders warrants to purchase 212,568 of our ordinary shares at an exercise price of $1.18 per share (the “Initial Warrants”). The Initial Warrants will be exercisable for 5 years from the date of issuance. Additionally, on the closing date, pursuant to the terms of a letter agreement among us, the Collateral Agent and the Lenders, we agreed to issue to the Lenders, on each date we draw additional term loans and in accordance with each Lender’s pro rata share of such additional term loans, one or more warrants (the “Additional Warrants”) to purchase an aggregate number of our ordinary shares that is equal to 2.00% of the aggregate amount of such additional term loans funded. The Additional Warrants will have a per share price equal to the lower of (i) the closing price for one of our ordinary shares on the last trading day prior to the funding date of such term loan or (ii) the trailing 10-day average closing price of an ordinary share of the Company for the ten trading days immediately prior to the funding date of the additional term loan. The Additional Warrants will otherwise have terms that are substantially similar to the Initial Warrants, including being exercisable for a term of 5 years.

 

On July 26, 2021, we announced that John Beck, Financial Officer of 4D pharma, has passed away. 4D pharma will continue to be actively led by its current management team and Board of Directors and succession planning is underway.

 

On March 22, 2021, we consummated a merger (the “Merger”) with Longevity Acquisition Corporation (“Longevity”), a publicly-traded special purpose acquisition company, pursuant to which we issued Nasdaq-listed American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”) to the shareholders of Longevity and assumed warrants previously issued by Longevity, and Longevity became our wholly-owned subsidiary.

 

At closing, Longevity merged with and into Dolphin Merger Sub Limited (“Merger Sub”), our new wholly owned subsidiary, with Merger Sub continuing as the surviving company. Each of Longevity’s ordinary shares issued and outstanding prior to the effective time of the merger (excluding shares held by the Company and Longevity and dissenting shares, if any) was automatically converted into the right to receive the per share merger consideration (as defined below). The per share merger consideration consisted of 7.5315 ordinary shares, payable in ADSs (each ADS representing 8 ordinary shares), for each issued and outstanding ordinary share of Longevity. Each warrant to purchase Longevity’s ordinary shares that was outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the merger was assumed by us and automatically converted into a warrant to purchase our ordinary shares, payable in our ADSs, giving effect to the exchange ratio implied by the per share merger consideration (we refer to these warrants in this prospectus as the Assumed Warrants). Each right to receive Longevity’s ordinary shares that was outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the merger was assumed by us and automatically converted into a right to receive our ordinary shares, payable in our ADSs, giving effect to the exchange ratio implied by the per share merger consideration. As a result of the Merger, we acquired Longevity’s assets which consisted of approximately $14.8 million in cash held in its trust account, less liabilities of Longevity in connection with transaction and related expenses.

  

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On March 17, 2021 and March 22, 2021, we announced subscription agreements (the “Subscription Agreements”) with certain accredited investors and Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (collectively, the “PIPE Investors”) pursuant to, and on the terms and subject to the conditions of which, the PIPE Investors collectively subscribed for 16,367,332 ordinary shares at a price of £1.10 (or $1.53) per ordinary share for an aggregate investment amount equal to £18.0 million ($25.0 million) (the “PIPE Investment”). In addition, on April 15, 2021, we entered into Subscription Agreements with our Chief Executive Officer, Duncan Peyton and our Chief Scientific Officer, Alexander Stevenson (the “Additional PIPE Investors”) pursuant to, and on the terms and subject to the conditions of which, the Additional PIPE Investors collectively subscribed for an additional 1,317,680 ordinary shares at a share price of £1.10 (or $1.53) per share for an aggregate investment amount equal to £1.44 million ($2.0 million) (the “Additional PIPE Investment” and together with the PIPE Investment, the “PIPE Investments”). The Subscription Agreements provide certain registration rights.

 

Pursuant to the Merger and the PIPE Investments, and after deducting the expenses of such transactions, we received net proceeds of approximately $33.1 million. As a result, together with cash on our balance sheet prior to the transactions, we had cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2021 of approximately $39.0 million (on a pro-forma basis including the net proceeds from the Additional PIPE Investment).

 

We are currently evaluating the accounting treatment of the Assumed Warrants in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“US GAAP”) to determine whether they will be classified as either liabilities or equity on our consolidated balance sheet for fiscal periods ending after the closing of the Merger.

 

In addition to the shares issued in the Merger and the PIPE Investments and the Assumed Warrants, we also assumed an option to purchase up to a total of 240,000 units at an exercise price of $11.50 per unit, each unit consisting of 8.28465 ordinary shares and a warrant to purchase up to 3.76575 ordinary shares at an exercise price of $1.53 per ordinary share. In connection with certain backstop financing agreements related to the Merger, we have committed to issue warrants to acquire up to 7,530,000 ordinary shares at an exercise price of £0.0025 per ordinary share.

 

Corporate Information

 

4D pharma plc was incorporated in England and Wales on January 10, 2014. Our principal executive offices are located at 5th Floor, 9 Bond Court, Leeds, LS1 2JZ, United Kingdom, and our telephone number is +44 (0) 113 895 0130.

 

Our website address is www.4dpharmaplc.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus, and you should not consider information contained on our website in deciding whether to purchase shares of our Ordinary Shares.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer

 

Emerging Growth Company

 

We are an emerging growth company as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of: the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues; the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; the issuance, in any three-year period, by us of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering.

 

As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other publicly traded entities that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include: (i) the option to present only two years of audited financial statements and related discussion in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this prospectus; (ii) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002; (iii) not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis); (iv) not being required to submit certain executive compensation matters to shareholder advisory votes, such as “say-on-pay,” “say-on-frequency,” and “say-on-golden parachutes”; and (v) not being required to disclose certain executive compensation related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and comparisons of the chief executive officer’s compensation to median employee compensation.

 

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of these accounting standards until they would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of this extended transition period.

 

 

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We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with certain other public companies difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

 

Foreign Private Issuer

 

We report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including: (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specific information, and current reports on Form 8-K upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

 

Foreign private issuers are also exempt from certain more stringent executive compensation disclosure rules. Thus, even if we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, but remain a foreign private issuer, we will continue to be exempt from the more stringent compensation and other disclosures required of companies that are neither an emerging growth company nor a foreign private issuer.

 

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THE REGISTERED SHARES

 

Nasdaq Stock Market Symbol for our ADSs   “LBPS”
     
AIM trading symbol for our ordinary shares   “DDDD”
     
Registered Shares  

16,268,040 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of the Assumed Warrants. Each Assumed Warrant currently is exercisable for 3.76575 of the Registrant’s ordinary shares at a price of $1.53 per whole ordinary share. Ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the Assumed Warrants are deliverable in the form of ADSs, with each ADS currently representing eight ordinary shares.

     
Ordinary shares issued and outstanding immediately before the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part   180,300,967 ordinary shares
     
Ordinary shares issued and outstanding immediately after the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part   196,569,007 ordinary shares (assuming full exercise of all Assumed Warrants)
     
American Depositary Shares   Each ADS represents eight ordinary shares, with a nominal value £0.0025 per ordinary share. Holders of ADSs have the rights of an ADS holder or beneficial owner of ADSs (as applicable) as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and holders and beneficial owners of ADSs issued thereunder from time to time. To better understand the terms of the ADSs representing our ordinary shares, see the section of this prospectus captioned “Description of Our American Depositary Shares.” We also encourage you to read the deposit agreement, the form of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
     
Depositary   JPMorgan Chase
     
Use of proceeds   We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $24.9 million from the exercise of the Assumed Warrants, assuming the exercise in full of all of the Assumed Warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Assumed Warrants for general corporate purposes. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” for more information.
     
Risk factors   See “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares or ADSs.

 

Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus, the number of our ordinary shares set forth herein is as of June 30, 2021 and is based on 180,300,967 ordinary shares issued and outstanding on such date but excludes:

 

  16,268,040 ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of the Assumed Warrants;
     
  417,088 ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options under our 2015 Long Term Incentive Plan, or the Employee LTIP, at an exercise price of £0.0025 per share;
     
  21,892,448 ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of existing 4D warrants outstanding pursuant to certain financing transactions, at a weighted average exercise price of £1.00 per share;
     
  7,530,000 ordinary shares issuable upon exercise of warrants we have committed to issue in connection with certain backstop financing agreements related to the Merger at an exercise price of £0.0025 per ordinary share; and
     
  240,000 units issuable upon exercise of a unit purchase option at an exercise price of $11.50 per unit, each unit consisting of 8.28465 ordinary shares and a warrant to purchase up to 3.76575 ordinary shares at an exercise price of $1.53 per ordinary share.

 

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SUMMARY RISK FACTORS

 

The below summary risks provide an overview of the material risks we are exposed to in the normal course of our business activities. The below summary risks do not contain all of the information that may be important to you, and you should read the summary risks below together with the more detailed discussion of risks set forth following this section under the heading “Risk Factors,” as well as elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem less significant may also affect our business operations or financial results. Consistent with the foregoing, we are exposed to a variety of risks, including those associated with the following:

 

  We are a development-stage company and have incurred significant losses since our inception. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.
     
  We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts. Such capital raises may cause dilution to our holders, including holders of our shares and ADSs.
     
  We are very early in our development efforts and may not be successful in our efforts to use our platform to build a pipeline of therapeutic candidates and develop marketable drugs. We may encounter substantial delays in the design, manufacture, regulatory approval, and launch of any of our therapeutic candidates, which could prevent us from commercializing any products we develop on a timely basis, if at all.
     
  We have a limited operating history, have not initiated or completed any pivotal clinical trials, and have no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate our current business and likelihood of success and current and future viability.
     
  We have limited experience manufacturing our therapeutic candidates at commercial scale, and if we decide to expand our own manufacturing facility, we cannot assure you that we can manufacture our therapeutic candidates in compliance with regulations at a cost or in quantities necessary to make them commercially viable.
     
  Our therapeutic candidates are single-strain LBPs, which are an unproven approach to therapeutic intervention.
     
  There may be immunotoxicity associated with the fundamental pharmacology of our therapeutic candidates or our therapeutic candidates may cause undesirable side effects, toxicities or other undesirable side effects when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs.
     
  Companies with differing microbiome or microbial products may produce negative clinical data which could adversely affect public perception of microbiome-derived therapies, and may negatively impact regulatory approval of, or demand for, our potential products.
     
  The clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may not demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities or otherwise produce positive results and the outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.
     
  If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrolment of patients in clinical trials or data from our clinical trials may changes as more patient data become available, our regulatory submissions or receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.
     
  We have begun developing and expect to continue to develop MRx0518 and potentially other therapeutic candidates in combination with other therapies, which exposes us to additional risks.

 

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  We face significant competition, and if our competitors develop and market technologies or products more rapidly than we do or that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the products we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.
     
  We expect to depend on collaborations with third parties for the research, development, and commercialization of certain of the therapeutic candidates we may develop. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to realize the market potential of those therapeutic candidates.
     
  If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection for any therapeutic candidates we develop, or if the scope of the patent and other intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize products and technology similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize any therapeutic candidates we may develop may be adversely affected.
     
  We may need to defend ourselves against intellectual property infringement claims, which may be time-consuming and could cause us to incur substantial costs.
     
  Our operations and financial results could be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, United States and the rest of the world.
     
  The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” may adversely impact our ability to obtain regulatory approvals of our therapeutic candidates in the EU, result in restrictions or imposition of taxes and duties for importing our therapeutic candidates into the EU, and may require us to incur additional expenses in order to develop, manufacture and commercialize our therapeutic candidates in the EU.
     
  Our ability to claim UK Research and Development tax credits would impact our cash requirements and the amount of additional capital required.

 

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

 

We are a development-stage company and have incurred significant losses since our inception. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses, have not generated any revenue from product sales to date and have financed our operations principally from proceeds from sales of our ordinary shares on Alternative Investment Market of the London Stock Exchange (the “AIM”). Our net loss was $30.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, $30.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 and $32.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $148.2 million. We have devoted substantially all of our financial resources and efforts to developing our MicroRx LBP discovery platform, identifying potential therapeutic candidates and conducting preclinical and clinical studies of our therapeutic candidates. We are in the early stages of developing our therapeutic candidates, and we have not completed the development of any microbiome therapies or other drugs or biologics. As a result, we expect that it could be several years, if ever, before we have a commercialized product and generate revenue from product sales. Even if we succeed in receiving marketing approval for and commercialize one or more of our therapeutic candidates, we expect that we will continue to incur substantial research and development costs and other expenses in order to discover, develop and market additional potential products.

 

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we continue and expand clinical trials to investigate the efficacy of our current therapeutic candidates;

 

  seek to enhance our discovery platform and discover and develop additional therapeutic candidates;
     
  seek regulatory approvals for any therapeutic candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

 

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  seek to establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale-up manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any products for which we may obtain regulatory approval;
     
  maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; and
     
  add clinical, scientific, operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product development and potential future commercialization efforts and to support our operations as a public company.

 

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. In addition, we anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if we experience any delays or encounter any issues with any of the above, including but not limited to failed studies, complex results, safety issues or other regulatory challenges. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter such that a period-to-period comparison of our results of operations may not be a good indication of our future performance. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenue. Our prior losses and expected future losses have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our working capital, our ability to fund the development of our therapeutic candidates and our ability to achieve and maintain profitability and the performance of our shares and ADSs.

 

We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts.

 

Developing pharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is a very time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception, and we expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we conduct clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and our other programs. Even if one or more of the therapeutic candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution activities. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the MHRA, FDA, the EMA or other regulatory agencies to perform clinical trials or preclinical studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Other unanticipated costs may also arise. Because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials are highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amount of resources and funding that will be necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of any product candidate we develop. While we have met with the MHRA, FDA and EMA to discuss the clinical development of our candidates, we have not discussed commercialization of any of programs, and we are not permitted to market or promote MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix, or any other product candidate, before we receive marketing approval from the MHRA, FDA or EMA. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in order to continue our operations.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had $12.0 million in cash and cash equivalents. We expected our current cash and cash equivalents, including the sales of ordinary shares in March and April 2021 pursuant to the PIPE Investments, and after giving effect to the Merger, a €1 million ($1.1 million) overdraft facility and a $12.5 million loan from Oxford Finance, will be sufficient to fund our current operating plan through the fourth quarter of 2022. Our estimate as to how long we expect the net proceeds of the merger with Longevity and from the PIPE Investments, together with our existing cash and cash equivalents, to be able to continue to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned.

 

We could be required to obtain further funding through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources, which may dilute our stockholders or restrict our operating activities. We do not have any committed external source of funds. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

 

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To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a stockholder. Debt financing may result in imposition of debt covenants, increased fixed payment obligations or other restrictions that may affect our business. If we raise additional funds through upfront payments or milestone payments pursuant to strategic collaborations with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our therapeutic candidates, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

 

Our failure to raise capital as and when needed or on acceptable terms would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy, and we may have to delay, reduce the scope of, suspend or eliminate one or more of our research-stage programs, clinical trials or future commercialization efforts.

 

Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends significantly on our ability to achieve several objectives relating to the discovery, development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates.

 

Our business depends entirely on the successful discovery, development and commercialization of therapeutic candidates. We have no products approved for commercial sale and do not anticipate generating any revenue from product sales in the short to medium term, if ever. To become and remain profitable, we, and any future collaborators, must succeed in developing and eventually commercializing products that generate significant revenue. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including completing preclinical testing and clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates, discovering additional therapeutic candidates, obtaining regulatory approval for these therapeutic candidates and manufacturing, marketing and selling any products for which we may obtain regulatory approval. We are only in the preliminary stages of most of these activities. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenue that is significant enough to achieve profitability.

 

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product and biological product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. If we are required by the MHRA, FDA or EMA or other regulatory authorities to perform preclinical or clinical studies in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in completing our preclinical studies or clinical trials or the development of any of our therapeutic candidates, our expenses could increase and revenue could be further delayed.

 

Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become and remain profitable would depress our value and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, maintain our research and development efforts, diversify our therapeutic offerings or even continue our operations.

 

We have a limited operating history, have not initiated or completed any pivotal clinical trials, and have no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate our current business and likelihood of success and current and future viability.

 

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. Since our inception in 2014, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to identifying and developing our therapeutic candidates, building our intellectual property portfolio, process development and manufacturing function, taking candidates through preclinical and clinical development, planning our business, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations. All of our therapeutic candidates are in clinical or preclinical development.

 

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Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. While we have now completed three clinical trials and have four more clinical trials ongoing, we do not have any products approved for sale. For instance, MRx0518, our lead immuno-oncology therapeutic candidate is being assessed in three separate clinical trials: in combination with Keytruda in patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC, RCC, UC who are refractory to prior anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, as a monotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting in patients undergoing surgical resection of solid tumors and in combination with hypofractionated radiotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer. In our respiratory program, our therapeutic candidate, MRx-4DP0004, is being assessed in patients with partly controlled asthma. We also have other therapeutic candidates in discovery and preclinical trials that are being assessed in a variety of disease types including, MRx1299 in solid tumors in various types of cancer, MRx0029 in Parkinson’s disease, MRx0006 in rheumatoid arthritis and MRx0002 in multiple sclerosis. We have also investigated the efficacy of two therapeutic candidates in our gastrointestinal program in clinical trials, Blautix and Thetanix for patients with IBS and pediatric Crohn’s disease, respectively. To date, however, we have not obtained marketing approval for and successfully commercialized a therapeutic candidate. We have devoted substantially all of our resources to research and development activities, including with respect to MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix therapeutic candidates, MicroRx and other preclinical programs, business planning, establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, hiring personnel, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations.

 

We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully initiate and complete a pivotal clinical trial, obtain marketing approvals, obtain regulatory approvals to commercialize a product, manufacture a commercial-scale product, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. As a result, it may be more difficult for you to accurately predict our likelihood of success and viability than it could be if we had a longer operating history. In addition, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown factors and risks frequently experienced by clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies in rapidly evolving fields. We also may need to transition from a company with a research and development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities.

 

Additionally, we expect our financial condition and operating results to continue to fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Consequently, any predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history.

 

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our holders, including holders of our ADSs, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or therapeutic candidates.

 

We expect that significant additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations, including expanded research and development activities and potential commercialization efforts. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through any or a combination of securities offerings, debt financings, license and collaboration agreements and research grants and tax credits.

 

To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a shareholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, could result in fixed payment obligations, and we may be required to accept terms that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, force us to maintain specified liquidity or other ratios or restrict our ability to pay dividends or make acquisitions. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be required to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or therapeutic candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. In addition, we could also be required to seek funds through arrangements with collaborators or others at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable.

 

If we raise funds through research grants or take advantage of research and development tax credits, we may be subject to certain requirements, which may limit our ability to use the funds or require us to share information from our research and development. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to a third party to develop and market therapeutic candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves. Raising additional capital through any of these or other means could adversely affect our business and the holdings or rights of our shareholders, and may cause the market price of our ADSs to decline.

 

The terms of our loan and security agreement require us to meet certain operating and financial covenants and place restrictions on our operating and financial flexibility. If we raise additional capital through debt financing, the terms of any new debt could further restrict our ability to operate our business.

 

As of September 13, 2021, we had $12.5 million outstanding in the form of a term loan under our loan and security agreement with Oxford Finance Luxembourg S.À R.L., as lender and collateral agent, which was entered into as of July 29, 2021. The loan is secured by substantially all of our assets, including all of the capital stock held by us, if any. The loan and security agreement contains a number of restrictive covenants, and the terms may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to certain changes in our business or industry, or take future actions. See the section of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

 

The loan and security agreement contains customary representations and warranties and affirmative covenants and also contains certain restrictive covenants, including, among others, limitations on: the incurrence of additional debt, liens or other encumbrances on property, acquisitions and investments, loans and guarantees, mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions, asset sales, assets held at certain subsidiaries, dividends and other payments in respect of our capital stock, prepayments of certain debt, transactions with affiliates and changes to our type of business, management of the business, control of the business or business locations. The loan and security agreement also includes a financial covenant that requires the Company to maintain a minimum amount of cash in bank accounts and is subject to a control agreement if the Company does not achieve a certain equity raise threshold. The loan and security agreement also contains customary events of default. If we fail to comply with all such covenants, payments or other terms of the agreement, our lender could declare an event of default, which would give it the right to declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable. In addition, our lender would have the right to proceed against the assets we provided as collateral pursuant to the loan and security agreement. If the debt under the loan and security agreement were accelerated, we may not have sufficient cash or be able to sell sufficient assets to repay this debt, which would harm our business and financial condition.

 

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Risks Related to the Discovery, Development, Regulatory Approval and Potential Commercialization of Our Therapeutic Candidates

 

We are very early in our development efforts and may not be successful in our efforts to use our platform to build a pipeline of therapeutic candidates and develop marketable drugs.

 

We are using our MicroRx platform, with an initial focus on developing therapies in immuno-oncology, inflammatory and CNS conditions, to discover and develop a pipeline of therapeutic candidates. While we believe our preclinical and clinical studies to date have validated our platform to a degree, we are at an early stage of development and our platform has not yet, and may never lead to, approvable or marketable products. We are developing these therapeutic candidates and additional therapeutic candidates that we intend to use to treat additional immunological diseases, respiratory diseases, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, behavioral, and other therapeutic areas. We may have problems applying our technologies to these other areas, and our new therapeutic candidates may not demonstrate a comparable ability in treating disease as our initial or our competitors’ therapeutic candidates. Even if we are successful in identifying additional therapeutic candidates, they may not be suitable for clinical development as a result of our inability to manufacture products comprising bacteria which are challenging to produce on a large scale, or which have limited efficacy, unacceptable safety profiles or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be products that will receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance, or will be unacceptably challenging to manufacture. The success of our therapeutic candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:

 

  completion of preclinical studies and clinical trials with positive results;
     
  receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
     
  obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our therapeutic candidates;
     
  making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, or the success of our existing commercial manufacturing capabilities;
     
  launching commercial sales of our products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
     
  entering into new collaborations throughout the development process as appropriate, from preclinical studies through to commercialization;
     
  acceptance of our products, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
     
  effectively competing with other therapies;
     
  obtaining and maintaining coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government payors, for our products, if approved;
     
  protecting our rights in our intellectual property portfolio;
     
  operating without infringing or violating the valid and enforceable patents or other intellectual property of third parties;
     
  maintaining an acceptable safety profile of the products following approval; and
     
  maintaining and growing an organization of scientists and business people who can develop and commercialize our products and technology.

 

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If we do not successfully develop and commercialize therapeutic candidates based upon our technological approach, we will not be able to obtain product revenue in future periods, which likely would result in significant harm to our financial position and adversely affect our stock price.

 

Certain of our therapeutic candidates are intended to act on cells in the small intestine to produce therapeutic effects in tissues remote from the gut with limited side effects. This biological interaction between the small intestine and the rest of the body may not function in humans the way we have observed in mice and our drugs may not reproduce the systemic effects we have seen in preclinical data.

 

We believe certain of our therapeutic candidates, including MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix, work by modulating systemic responses via interactions with cells in the small intestine. This requires our therapeutics be dosed to achieve sufficient exposure to the small intestine, requiring them to firstly pass safely through the gut. Dosing to achieve sufficient exposure may require an inconvenient dosing regimen. Even with successful formulation and delivery to achieve proper exposure of our LBPs to the small intestine, we may not get sufficient or even any activity at the site of disease. This may be because our understanding of the mechanisms of the small intestine do not work in humans the way we believe they do. Despite the positive early results observed in our clinical studies and the strong justification in the academic literature to support the concept, these principles and the ability to use microbiome derived therapies to modulate the immune system and other systems has not yet been proven in large scale studies in humans.

 

Our therapeutic candidates are Live Biotherapeutics Products, which are an unproven approach to therapeutic intervention.

 

All of our LBP candidates are based on single strains of commensal bacteria. We have not, nor to our knowledge has any other company, received regulatory approval for an oral therapeutic based on this approach. We cannot be certain that our approach will lead to the development of approvable or marketable products. In addition, our LBPs may have different safety profiles and efficacy in various indications. Finally, regulatory agencies may lack experience in evaluating the safety and efficacy of products based on live bacteria, which could result in a longer than expected regulatory review process, increase our expected development costs and delay or prevent commercialization of our therapeutic candidates.

 

Even if our therapeutic candidates do not cause off target adverse events, there may be immunotoxicity associated with the fundamental pharmacology of our therapeutic candidates.

 

Our therapeutic candidates, including MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004 and Thetanix, work by modulating the immune system. While we have observed in preclinical studies that our LBPs have favorable side effect profiles, the pharmacological immune effects we induce are often remote from the gut. Although not observed in any of the clinical studies we have run to date, systemic immunomodulation from taking our LBPs could lead to immunotoxicity in patients, which may cause us or regulatory authorities to delay, limit or suspend clinical development. Other immunomodulatory agents have shown immunotoxicity. In the case of immune activating agents, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, induction of adverse auto-immune events has been observed in some patients. Immunotoxicity in one program could cause regulators to view these adverse events as a class effect of our LBPs, which may impact the timing of the development of our pipeline of potential therapeutic candidates. Even if the adverse events are manageable, the profile of the drug may be such that it limits or diminishes the possible number of patients who could receive our therapy.

 

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Our therapeutic candidates may cause undesirable side effects, toxicities or other undesirable side effects when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs, or have other properties that may result in a safety profile that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, prevent market acceptance, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, if any.

 

If our therapeutic candidates are associated with undesirable side effects or have unexpected characteristics in preclinical studies or clinical trials when used alone or in combination with other approved products or investigational new drugs we may need to interrupt, delay or abandon their development or limit development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product candidate and may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

 

For example, our current therapeutic candidates consist of lyophilized live biological material that remain viable in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. If these bacteria exert a pathogenic effect, despite this not having been observed in any clinical trials to date, the bacteria carry a risk of causing infections in patients. Some infections may require treatment with antibiotics to eliminate the pathogenic bacteria. All our therapeutic candidates are screened for antibiotic sensitivity but it is possible that if antibiotic therapy does not eliminate the live biological material, a resistant version of our strain could remerge. These events, while unlikely, could cause a delay in our clinical development and/or could increase the regulatory standards for the entire class of microbiome derived therapies. In an instance where the infection risk of taking our therapeutic candidates is high, this may cause the benefit risk profile of therapy to be non-competitive in the market and may lead to discontinuation of development of the product.

 

In addition, it is possible that infections from our therapeutic candidates could be rare and not frequently observed in our clinical trials. In larger post marketing authorization trials, however, data could show that the infection risk, while small, does exist. If unacceptable side effects arise in the development of our therapeutic candidates, we, the MHRA, FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, the IRBs at the institutions in which our studies are conducted, or ethics committees, or the DSMB could suspend or terminate our clinical trials or the MHRA, FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease clinical trials or deny approval of our therapeutic candidates for any or all targeted indications. Although none have been observed in any of our clinical studies to date, treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. We expect to have to train medical personnel using our therapeutic candidates to understand the side effect profiles for the LBPs we are studying in our clinical trials and upon any commercialization of any of our therapeutic candidates. Inadequate training in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of our therapeutic candidates could result in patient injury or death. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

 

If any of our therapeutic candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

 

  regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product;
     
  we may be required to recall a product or change the way such product is administered to patients;
     
  additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component thereof;
     
  we may be required to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials;
     
  regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as a “black box” warning or a contraindication;
     
  we may be required to implement a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy or create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;
     
  we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;

 

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  the product may become less competitive; and
     
  our reputation may suffer.

 

Any of the foregoing events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and result in the loss of significant revenues to us, which would materially and adversely affect our results of operations and business.

 

Companies with differing microbiome or microbial products may produce negative clinical data which will adversely affect public perception of microbiome-derived therapies, and may negatively impact regulatory approval of, or demand for, our potential products.

 

Our LBP therapeutic candidates are pharmaceutical compositions of commensal bacteria. While we believe our approach is distinct from other types of microbiome therapy, negative data from clinical trials using microbiome-based therapies and other types of microbiome therapy could negatively impact the perception of the therapeutic use of microbiome-based products. This could negatively impact our ability to enroll patients in clinical trials. The clinical and commercial success of our potential products will depend in part on the public and clinical communities’ acceptance of the use of LBPs. Moreover, our success depends upon physicians prescribing, and their patients being willing to receive, treatments that involve the use of therapeutic candidates we may develop in lieu of, or in addition to, existing treatments with which they are already familiar and for which greater clinical data may be available.

 

Adverse events in our preclinical studies or clinical trials or those of our competitors or of academic researchers utilizing microbiome technologies, even if not attributable to our therapeutic candidates, and the resulting publicity could result in increased governmental regulation, unfavorable public perception, potential regulatory delays in the testing or approval of our potential therapeutic candidates, stricter labeling requirements for our therapeutic candidates that are approved, if any, and a decrease in demand for any such products.

 

We have limited experience manufacturing our therapeutic candidates at commercial scale, and if we decide to expand our own manufacturing facility, we cannot assure you that we can manufacture our therapeutic candidates in compliance with regulations at a cost or in quantities necessary to make them commercially viable.

 

We have significantly invested in our in-house manufacturing facility for our therapeutic candidates for production at a commercial scale. Although we have taken seven strains through process development and scale-up to be able to manufacture clinic-ready product, and our in-house facility has the ability to produce over 30 million capsules of current good manufacturing practice (“cGMP”) drug product per year, with capacity to support our ongoing trials and potentially small-scale commercial supply, we have limited experience in commercial-scale manufacturing of our therapeutic candidates. We are investigating external manufacturing capability as we scale our therapeutic candidates and prepare for commercialization of one or more of our therapeutic candidates. Currently, we are dependent on the manufacturing of product for each of our therapeutic candidates at our internal manufacturing facility. Developing our in-house manufacturing facility, required and continues to require substantial additional funds and hiring and training a significant number of qualified employees to staff this facility. We may not be able to develop commercial-scale manufacturing facilities that are able to produce an adequate supply of materials in the event of significant commercial uptake of one of LBP therapeutics.

 

Although having in-house control of production has been a significant advantage in a field that has experienced significant hurdles relating to manufacturing, the equipment and facilities employed in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals are subject to stringent qualification requirements by regulatory agencies, including validation of facility, equipment, systems, processes and analytics. Our in-house manufacturing facility is currently compliant with cGMP regulations. However, if we are found to no longer comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside of the United States or if we cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, EMA or others, we will not be able to secure and/or maintain marketing approval for our manufacturing facility or any future facilities.

 

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Catastrophic events at our manufacturing facility or loss of our master cell banks could significantly impair our ability to manufacture our therapeutic candidates.

 

We currently manufacture all of the material for our therapeutic candidates out of our sole manufacturing facility in Leòn, Spain. We have not undertaken a systematic analysis of the potential consequences to our business and financial results if our manufacturing facility is impacted by flood, fire, earthquake, power loss, terrorist activity or other disasters and do not have a recovery plan or alternative manufacturing facility. In addition, we do not carry sufficient insurance to compensate us for actual losses from interruption of our business that may occur, and any losses or damages incurred by us could harm our business. The occurrence of any of these business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

 

In addition, our LBP therapeutic candidates require that we manufacture from MCBs of strains from our library of single strain bacteria. There is a possibility of a catastrophic failure or destruction of our MCBs. This could make it impossible for us to continue to manufacture a specific product. Recreating and recertifying our MCBs is possible, as we have back-up stocks of our clinical candidates stored remotely from the MCBs, but not certain and could put at risk the supply of our therapeutic candidates for preclinical studies or clinical trials or any products, if approved, to our customers.

 

The regulatory approval processes of the MHRA, FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable. If we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval of our therapeutic candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.

 

Obtaining approval by the MHRA, FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable, typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the therapeutic candidates involved. In addition, approval policies, regulations or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions, which may cause delays in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other data. Even if we eventually complete clinical testing and receive approval for our therapeutic candidates, the MHRA, FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may approve our therapeutic candidates for a more limited indication or a narrower patient population than we originally requested or may impose other prescribing limitations or warnings that limit the product’s commercial potential. We have not submitted for, or obtained, regulatory approval for any product candidate, and it is possible that none of our therapeutic candidates will ever obtain regulatory approval. Further, development of our therapeutic candidates and/or regulatory approval may be delayed for reasons beyond our control.

 

Applications for our therapeutic candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

 

  the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation or results of our clinical trials;
     
  the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may determine that our therapeutic candidates are not safe and effective, are only moderately effective or have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use;
     
  the population studied in the clinical trial may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure efficacy and safety in the full population for which we seek approval;
     
  the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

 

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  we may be unable to demonstrate to the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities that our product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio for its proposed indication is acceptable;
     
  the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes, test procedures and specifications or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies;
     
  the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable regulatory authorities may fail to approve companion diagnostic tests required for our therapeutic candidates; and
     
  the approval policies or regulations of the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

 

This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of the results of clinical trials, may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market any of our therapeutic candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

The clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates may not demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities or otherwise produce positive results.

 

Before obtaining marketing approval from the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for the sale of our therapeutic candidates, we must complete preclinical development and extensive clinical trials to demonstrate with substantial evidence the safety and efficacy of such therapeutic candidates. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and its ultimate outcome is uncertain. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of the process. The outcome of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their therapeutic candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their drugs.

 

  We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent receipt of marketing approval or our ability to commercialize our therapeutic candidates, including:
     
  receipt of feedback from regulatory authorities that requires us to modify the design of our clinical trials;
     
  negative or inconclusive clinical trial results that may require us to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon certain drug development programs;
     
  the number of patients required for clinical trials being larger than anticipated, enrollment in these clinical trials being slower than anticipated or participants dropping out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than anticipated;
     
  third-party contractors failing to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
     
  the suspension or termination of our clinical trials for various reasons, including non-compliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that our therapeutic candidates have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics or risks;
     
  the cost of clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates being greater than anticipated;
     
  the supply or quality of our therapeutic candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates being insufficient or inadequate; and
     
  regulators revising the requirements for approving our therapeutic candidates.

 

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If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our therapeutic candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates or other testing in a timely manner, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may incur unplanned costs, be delayed in seeking and obtaining marketing approval, if we receive such approval at all, receive more limited or restrictive marketing approval, be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements or have the drug removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.

 

The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

 

We will be required to demonstrate with substantial evidence through well-controlled clinical trials that our therapeutic candidates are safe and effective for use in a diverse population before we can seek marketing approvals for their commercial sale. Success in preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials does not mean that future clinical trials will be successful. For example, we have not yet completed a clinical trial of MRx-4DP0004. While we have received positive results from the preclinical trials of MRx-4DP0004, we do not know how it will perform in current or future clinical trials as it has in prior preclinical studies. Therapeutic candidates in later-stage clinical trials may fail to demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the MHRA, FDA, EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities despite having progressed through preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials.

 

Additionally, while we are aware of several other clinical-stage companies developing new therapeutics, to our knowledge, there are no therapeutics approved for the treatment of patients with solid tumors that are refractory to ICI therapy. However, the development of MRx0518 and our share price may be impacted by inferences, whether correct or not, that are drawn between the success of our therapeutic candidates and those of other companies. Regulatory authorities may also limit the scope of later-stage trials until we have demonstrated satisfactory safety, which could delay regulatory approval, limit the size of the patient population to which we may market our therapeutic candidates, or prevent regulatory approval.

 

In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety and efficacy results between different clinical trials of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in trial protocols, differences in size and type of the patient populations, differences in and adherence to the dose and dosing regimen and other trial protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical trial participants. Patients treated with our therapeutic candidates may also be undergoing surgical, and other treatments and may be using other approved products or investigational new drugs, which can cause side effects or adverse events that are unrelated to our therapeutic candidates. As a result, assessments of efficacy can vary widely for a particular patient, and from patient to patient and site to site within a clinical trial. This subjectivity can increase the uncertainty of, and adversely impact, our clinical trial outcomes.

 

We do not know whether any clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate efficacy and safety sufficient to obtain approval to market any of our therapeutic candidates.

 

If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrolment of patients in clinical trials, our regulatory submissions or receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented.

 

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our therapeutic candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. We are developing our therapeutic candidates, MRx0518, to treat multiple types of cancer, MRx-4DP0004 to treat asthma and COVID-19 and MRx0029 to treat central nervous system disorders. There are a limited number of patients from which to draw for clinical studies for many of our therapeutic candidates.

 

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Enrollment of patients in our clinical trials and maintaining patients in our ongoing clinical trials may be delayed or limited as our clinical trial sites limit their onsite staff or temporarily close as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, patients may not be able to visit clinical trial sites for dosing or data collection purposes due to limitations on travel and physical distancing imposed or recommended by federal or state governments or patients’ reluctance to visit the clinical trial sites during the pandemic. These factors resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic could delay the anticipated readouts from our clinical trials and our regulatory submissions. For example, enrolment for our Phase I/II clinical trial of MRx-4DP0004 in patients with partly controlled asthma has been impacted due to factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, potentially delaying expected preliminary data for this clinical trial.

 

Patient enrolment is also affected by other factors including:

 

  the severity of the disease under investigation;
     
  the patient eligibility criteria for the study in question;
     
  the existence of competing clinical trials with the same patient population;
     
  the perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
     
  the availability of other treatments for the disease under investigation;
     
  the efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
     
  our payments for conducting clinical trials;
     
  the patient referral practices of physicians;
     
  the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and
     
  the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.

 

Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients or volunteers for our clinical trials would result in significant delays and could require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our therapeutic candidates, which would cause the value of our company to decline and limit our ability to obtain additional financing.

 

Interim, “topline” and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

 

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary or topline data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials, which is based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the topline or preliminary results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available.

 

From time to time, we may also disclose interim data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrolment continues and more patient data become available. Adverse differences between preliminary or interim data and final data could significantly harm our business prospects. Further, disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors could result in volatility in the price of our shares and ADSs.

 

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Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular product candidate or product and our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is based on what is typically extensive information, and you or others may not agree with what we determine is material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure.

 

We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on therapeutic candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

 

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we intend to focus on developing therapeutic candidates that we identify as most likely to succeed, in terms of both regulatory approval and commercialization. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other therapeutic candidates or for other indications that may prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and product development programs and therapeutic candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements, in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate.

 

We have begun developing and expect to continue to develop MRx0518 and potentially other therapeutic candidates in combination with other therapies, which exposes us to additional risks.

 

We have begun developing and intend to continue to develop MRx0518 and potentially other programs, in combination with one or more currently approved therapies. In 2019, we initiated a Phase I/II study evaluating our LBP MRx0518 in combination with Keytruda in heavily pre-treated patients with secondary resistant tumors refractory to ICIs. Although we have dosed patients with MRx0518 and Keytruda without any observed drug related serious adverse events, as we move into larger study populations, we cannot exclude the possibility of observing that some patients may not be able to tolerate MRx0518 or any of our other therapeutic candidates in combination with other therapies, like Bavencio (avelumab), or dosing of MRx0518 in combination with other therapies may have unexpected consequences. Even if any of our therapeutic candidates were to receive marketing approval or be commercialized for use in combination with other existing therapies, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the MHRA, FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could revoke approval of the therapy used in combination with any of our therapeutic candidates, or safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with these existing therapies. In addition, it is possible that existing therapies with which our therapeutic candidates are approved for use could themselves fall out of favor or be relegated to later lines of treatment. This could result in the need to identify other combination therapies for our therapeutic candidates or our own products being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.

 

Additionally, if the third-party providers of therapies or therapies in development used in combination with our therapeutic candidates are unable to produce sufficient quantities for clinical trials or for commercialization of our therapeutic candidates, or if the cost of combination therapies are prohibitive, our development and commercialization efforts would be impaired, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. For example, for our Phase I/II trial of MRx0518 in combination with the ICI Keytruda, we entered into a clinical trial collaboration and supply agreement with MSD. Under the terms of the clinical trial collaboration and supply agreement, MSD supply us with Keytruda to use in combination with MRx0518. If this agreement terminates and we are unable to obtain Keytruda on the current terms, the cost to us to conduct this trial may significantly increase.

 

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Even if any of our therapeutic candidates receive marketing approval, they may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, hospitals, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

 

Even if our therapeutic candidates pass scrutiny by regulatory authorities, since LBPs are a new therapeutic modality, the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, hospitals, third-party payors and others in the medical community of any of our approved therapeutic candidates will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

  the efficacy and safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials compared to alternative treatments;
     
  the timing of market introduction of the product candidate as well as competitive products;
     
  the clinical indications for which a product candidate is approved;
     
  restrictions on the use of therapeutic candidates in the labelling approved by regulatory authorities, such as boxed warnings or contraindications in labelling, or a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, if any, which may not be required of alternative treatments and competitor products;
     
  the potential and perceived advantages of our therapeutic candidates over alternative treatments;
     
  the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments;
     
  the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government authorities;
     
  the availability of an approved product candidate for use as a combination therapy;
     
  relative convenience and ease of administration;
     
  the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and undergo required diagnostic screening to determine treatment eligibility and of physicians to prescribe these therapies and diagnostic tests;
   
  the effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts;
     
  unfavorable publicity relating to our therapeutic candidates; and
     
  the approval of other new therapies for the same indications.

 

If any of our therapeutic candidates are approved but do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, hospitals, healthcare payors and patients, we may not generate or derive sufficient revenue from that product candidate and our financial results could be negatively impacted.

 

If we are unable to establish sales or marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to sell or market our therapeutic candidates, we may not be able to successfully sell or market our therapeutic candidates that obtain regulatory approval.

 

We currently do not have and have never had a marketing or sales team. In order to commercialize any therapeutic candidates, if approved, we must build marketing, sales, distribution, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services for each of the territories in which we may have approval to sell or market our therapeutic candidates. We may not be successful in accomplishing these required tasks.

 

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Establishing an internal sales or marketing team with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize our therapeutic candidates will be expensive and time-consuming, and will require significant attention of our executive officers to manage. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities could adversely impact the commercialization of any of our therapeutic candidates that we obtain approval to market, if we do not have arrangements in place with third parties to provide such services on our behalf. Alternatively, if we choose to collaborate, either globally or on a territory-by-territory basis, with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems, either to augment our own sales force and distribution systems or in lieu of our own sales force and distribution systems, we will be required to negotiate and enter into arrangements with such third parties relating to the proposed collaboration and such arrangements may prove to be less profitable than commercializing the product on our own. If we are unable to enter into such arrangements when needed, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any of our therapeutic candidates that receive regulatory approval, or any such commercialization may experience delays or limitations. If we are unable to successfully commercialize our approved therapeutic candidates, either on our own or through collaborations with one or more third parties, our future product revenue will suffer, and we may incur significant additional losses.

 

We face significant competition, and if our competitors develop and market technologies or products more rapidly than we do or that are more effective, safer or less expensive than the products we develop, our commercial opportunities will be negatively impacted.

 

The development and commercialization of new drug and biologic products is highly competitive and is characterized by rapid and substantial technological development and product innovations. We face competition with respect to our current therapeutic candidates and will face competition with respect to therapeutic candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. We are aware of a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including AbbVie Inc., Amgen Inc., AstraZeneca plc, Biogen Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, F. Hoffmann-La Roche A.G., Novartis, Janssen, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Johnson & Johnson, MSD, Novartis International A.G., Pfizer Inc., Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Sanofi S.A. and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., as well as smaller, early-stage companies, that are pursuing the development of products, including microbiome-based therapeutics in some instances, for disease indications we are targeting. Some of these competitive products and therapies are based on scientific approaches that are similar to our approach, and others may be based on entirely different approaches. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations.

 

Many of the companies against which we are competing or against which we may compete in the future have significantly greater financial resources, established presence in the market and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and reimbursement and marketing approved products than we do. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific, sales and marketing and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

 

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain MHRA, FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could delay us from obtaining MHRA, FDA approval to market our therapeutic candidates and result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market, especially for any competitor developing a microbiome-based therapeutic which will likely share our same regulatory approval requirements. For more information, please see “Risk Factors — Our therapeutic candidates for which we intend to seek approval as biologic products may face competition sooner than anticipated, which may delay us from marketing our therapeutic candidates.” In addition, our ability to compete may in future be affected in many cases by insurers or other third-party payors seeking to encourage the use of generic or biosimilar products.

 

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Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

 

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our therapeutic candidates in clinical trials and will face an even greater risk if we commercially sell any products that we develop. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that our therapeutic candidates or products caused injuries, we will incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

  regulatory investigations, product recalls or withdrawals, or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;
     
  decreased demand for any therapeutic candidates or products that we may develop;
     
  injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;
     
  withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
     
  significant costs to defend the related litigation;
     
  substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
     
  loss of revenue;
     
  reduced resources of our management to pursue our business strategy; and
     
  the inability to commercialize any products that we may develop.

 

Our current product liability insurance coverage and any product liability insurance coverage that we acquire in the future may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. We may need to increase our insurance coverage as we expand our clinical trials or if we commence commercialization of our therapeutic candidates. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise.

 

Our therapeutic candidates for which we intend to seek approval as biologic products may face competition sooner than anticipated, which may delay us from marketing our therapeutic candidates.

 

Even if we are successful in achieving regulatory approval to commercialize a product candidate faster than our competitors, we may face competition from biosimilars. In the US, the BPCIA created an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biological product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product may not be submitted to the FDA until four years following the date that the reference product was first licensed by the FDA. In addition, the approval of a biosimilar product may not be made effective by the FDA until 12 years from the date on which the reference product was first licensed. During this 12-year period of exclusivity, another company may still market a competing version of the reference product if the FDA approves a full BLA for the competing product containing the sponsor’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity and potency of their product. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty. While it is uncertain when such processes intended to implement BPCIA may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our biological products.

 

We believe that any of our therapeutic candidates approved as a biological product under a BLA should qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider our therapeutic candidates to be reference products for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for generic competition sooner than anticipated. Other aspects of the BPCIA, some of which may impact the BPCIA exclusivity provisions, have also been the subject of recent litigation. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for any one of our reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biological products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing.

 

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In Europe, the European Commission has granted marketing authorizations for biosimilars pursuant to a set of general and product class-specific guidelines for biosimilar approvals issued over the past few years. Post-Brexit, it is understood that the UK will follow the same regulatory regime. According to this regime, a competitor may reference data supporting approval of an innovative biological product but will not be able to get on the market until 10 years after the time of approval of the innovative product. This 10-year marketing exclusivity period will be extended to 11 years if, during the first eight of those 10 years, the marketing authorization holder obtains an approval for one or more new therapeutic indications that bring significant clinical benefits compared with existing therapies. In addition, companies may be developing biosimilars in other countries that could compete with our products. If competitors are able to obtain marketing approval for biosimilars referencing our products, our products may become subject to competition from such biosimilars, with the attendant competitive pressure and consequences.

 

Failure to obtain marketing approval in international jurisdictions would prevent our therapeutic candidates from being marketed abroad.

 

In order to market and sell our therapeutic candidates in the United Kingdom, United States, the European Union and many other jurisdictions, we or our collaborators must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval in foreign countries may differ substantially from that required to obtain UK, FDA, EMA or other applicable regulatory approval. Additionally, the MHRA has taken on additional regulatory responsibilities for medical products marketed in the UK, as pan-EU regulatory procedures before EMA no longer apply in the UK. MHRA and the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (“NIBSC”) have issued guidance documents to the industry regarding regulation under the UK system. Proposals set forth in the new MHRA guidance will take effect through legislative changes that are subject to parliamentary approval, which may increase the amount of resources and time needed for obtaining regulatory approval in the UK and delay our clinical development and commercialization. The full impact of Brexit on our business remains unclear.

 

Furthermore, clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining MHRA, FDA, EMA or other applicable regulatory approval. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, it is required that the product be approved for reimbursement before the product can be approved for sale in that country. We or our collaborators may not obtain approvals for our therapeutic candidates from regulatory authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the MHRA or FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. However, a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others. We may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market.

 

Any therapeutic candidates we develop may become subject to unfavorable third-party coverage and reimbursement practices, as well as pricing regulations.

 

The availability and extent of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, private health coverage insurers, managed care organizations and other third-party payors is essential for most patients to be able to afford expensive treatments. Sales of any of our therapeutic candidates that receive marketing approval will depend substantially, both in the United States and internationally, on the extent to which the costs of such therapeutic candidates will be covered and reimbursed by third-party payors. If reimbursement is not available, or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our therapeutic candidates. Even if coverage is provided, the approved reimbursement amount may not be high enough to allow us to establish or maintain pricing sufficient to realize an adequate return on our investment. Coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. If coverage and reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not successfully commercialize any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval.

 

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There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, for example, principal decisions about reimbursement for new products are typically made by the CMS, an agency within the HHS. CMS decides whether and to what extent a new product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private third-party payors often follow CMS’s decisions regarding coverage and reimbursement to a substantial degree. However, one third-party payor’s determination to provide coverage for a product candidate does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product. As a result, the coverage determination process is often time-consuming and costly. This process will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each third-party payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance. The approval process may be more cumbersome for us since our LBP therapeutic candidates have not been previously marketed for the uses we propose.

 

Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Further, such payors are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity and reviewing the cost effectiveness of medical therapeutic candidates. There may be especially significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement for newly approved drugs. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific therapeutic candidates on an approved list, known as a formulary, which might not include all FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. We may need to conduct expensive pharmaco-economic studies to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost effectiveness of our products. Nonetheless, our therapeutic candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost effective. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be.

 

In addition, companion diagnostic tests require coverage and reimbursement separate and apart from the coverage and reimbursement for their companion pharmaceutical or biological products. Similar challenges to obtaining coverage and reimbursement, applicable to pharmaceutical or biological products, will apply to any companion diagnostics we invent and develop with intent to commercialize. Additionally, if any companion diagnostic provider is unable to obtain reimbursement or is inadequately reimbursed, that may limit the availability of such companion diagnostic, which would negatively impact prescriptions for our therapeutic candidates, if approved.

 

Outside the United States, the commercialization of therapeutics is generally subject to extensive governmental price controls and other market regulations, and we believe the increasing emphasis on cost containment initiatives in Europe, Canada and other countries has and will continue to put pressure on the pricing and usage of therapeutics such as our therapeutic candidates. In many countries, particularly the countries of the European Union, medical product prices are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after a product receives marketing approval. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies. In general, product prices under such systems are substantially lower than in the United States. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for products but monitor and control company profits. Additional foreign price controls or other changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we are able to charge for our therapeutic candidates. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for our products may be reduced compared with the United States and may be insufficient to generate commercially reasonable revenue and profits.

 

If we are unable to establish or sustain coverage and adequate reimbursement for any therapeutic candidates from third-party payors, the adoption of those products and sales revenue will be adversely affected, which, in turn, could adversely affect the ability to market or sell those therapeutic candidates, if approved. Coverage policies and third-party payor reimbursement rates may change at any time. Even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained for one or more products for which we receive regulatory approval, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

 

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We expect to depend on collaborations with third parties for the research, development, and commercialization of certain of the therapeutic candidates we may develop. If any such collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to realize the market potential of those therapeutic candidates.

 

We currently use and expect to continue to work with third-party collaborators for the research, development, and commercialization of certain of the therapeutic candidates we may develop. For example, we have entered into a research collaboration and option to license agreement with MSD to discover and develop LBPs for vaccines. We also entered into a strategic alliance with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. To date, we have initiated two clinical trials as part of this strategic alliance. For additional information on our relationships with MSD and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, see “Business—Collaborations.” Our likely collaborators for any other collaboration arrangements include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies and academic institutions. While we generally impose diligence obligations on our collaborators, we often have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that they dedicate to the development or potential commercialization of any therapeutic candidates we may seek to develop with them. Our ability to generate revenue from these arrangements with commercial entities will depend on our collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. We cannot predict the success of any collaboration that we enter into.

 

Collaborations involving any therapeutic candidates we may develop pose the following risks to us:

 

  despite being subject to contractual diligence obligations, collaborators generally control the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;
     
  collaborators may not properly obtain, maintain, enforce, or defend intellectual property or proprietary rights relating to our therapeutic candidates or research programs or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to expose us to potential litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings, including proceedings challenging the scope, ownership, validity, and enforceability of our intellectual property;
     
  collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property covering our therapeutic candidates or research and development programs that results from our collaboration with them, and in such cases, we may not have the right to commercialize such intellectual property or such therapeutic candidates or research programs;
     
  we may need the cooperation of our collaborators to enforce or defend any intellectual property we contribute to or that arises out of our collaborations, which may not be provided to us;
     
  collaborators may decide to not pursue development and commercialization of any therapeutic candidates we develop or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborator’s strategic focus or available funding or external factors such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities or collaborators may elect to fund or commercialize a competing product;
     
  collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials, or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;
     
  collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our therapeutic candidates or research programs if the collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than ours;
     
  collaborators may restrict us from researching, developing, or commercializing certain products or technologies without their involvement;

 

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  collaborators with marketing and distribution rights to one or more therapeutic candidates may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such therapeutic candidates;
     
  we may lose certain valuable rights under circumstances identified in our collaborations, including if we undergo a change of control;
     
  collaborators may grant sublicenses to our technology or therapeutic candidates or undergo a change of control, and the sublicensees or new owners may decide to take the collaboration in a direction which is not in our best interest;
     
  collaborators may become bankrupt, which may significantly delay our research or development programs, or may cause us to lose access to valuable technology, know-how, or intellectual property of the collaborator relating to our products, therapeutic candidates, or research programs;
     
  key personnel at our collaborators may leave, which could negatively impact our ability to productively work with our collaborators;
     
  collaborations may require us to incur short and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our stockholders, or disrupt our management and business;
     
  if our collaborators do not satisfy their obligations under our agreements with them, or if they terminate our collaborations with them, we may not be able to develop or commercialize therapeutic candidates as planned;
     
  collaborations may require us to share in development and commercialization costs pursuant to budgets that we do not fully control, and our failure to share in such costs could have a detrimental impact on the collaboration or our ability to share in revenue generated under the collaboration;
     
  collaborations may be terminated in their entirety or with respect to certain therapeutic candidates or technologies and, if so terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable therapeutic candidates or technologies; and
     
  collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of therapeutic candidates in the most efficient manner or at all. If a present or future collaborator of ours were to be involved in a business combination, the continued pursuit and emphasis on our development or commercialization program under such collaboration could be delayed, diminished, or terminated.

 

We may face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborations. Recent business combinations among biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have resulted in a reduced number of potential collaborators. In addition, the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex, and we may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of the product candidate for which we are seeking to collaborate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop therapeutic candidates or bring them to market and generate product revenue.

 

We may not realize the benefit of collaborations if we or our collaborator elects not to exercise the rights granted under the agreement or if we or our collaborator are unable to successfully integrate a product candidate into existing operations and company culture. In addition, if our agreement with any of our collaborators terminates, our access to technology and intellectual property licensed to us by that collaborator may be restricted or terminate entirely, which may delay our continued development of our therapeutic candidates utilizing the collaborator’s technology or intellectual property or require us to stop development of those therapeutic candidates completely. We may also find it more difficult to find a suitable replacement collaborator or attract new collaborators, and our development programs may be delayed or the perception of us in the business and financial communities could be adversely affected. Many of the risks relating to product development, regulatory approval, and commercialization described in this “Risk Factors” section also apply to the activities of our collaborators and any negative impact on our collaborators may adversely affect us.

 

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We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to conduct our clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials, research and studies.

 

We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions, clinical investigators and potential pharmaceutical partners, to conduct and manage our clinical trials, including our clinical trials of MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004 and potential future trials with MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix.

 

Third parties have a significant role in the conduct of our clinical trials and the subsequent collection and analysis of data. These third parties are not our employees, and except for obligations imposed upon those third parties and remedies available to us under our agreements with such third parties, we have limited ability to control the amount or timing of resources that any such third party will devote to our clinical trials. The third parties we rely on for these services may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors. Some of these third parties may be able to terminate their engagements with us at any time. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements with a third party, it would delay our drug development activities.

 

Our reliance on these third parties for such drug development activities will reduce our control over these activities but will not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. For example, we will remain responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with GCP standards, regulations for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are reliable and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. The MHRA and EMA also require us to comply with similar standards. Regulatory authorities enforce these GCP requirements through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of our CROs fail to comply with applicable GCP requirements, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, MHRA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials substantially comply with GCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under current cGMP regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the marketing approval process.

 

If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we will not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, marketing approvals for our therapeutic candidates and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize our therapeutic candidates.

 

We also rely on third parties to store and distribute drug product required by our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our therapeutic candidates or commercialization of our products, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.

 

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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

 

If we are unable to obtain and maintain patent and other intellectual property protection for any therapeutic candidates we develop, or if the scope of the patent and other intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize products and technology similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize any therapeutic candidates we may develop may be adversely affected.

 

Our commercial success will depend in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property protection of our therapeutic candidates and other technology, methods used to manufacture them and methods of treatment, as well as successfully defending our patent and other intellectual property rights against third-party challenges. It is difficult and costly to protect and enforce intellectual property rights, and we may not be able to ensure the same for every product. Our ability to stop unauthorized third parties from making, using, selling, offering to sell, importing or otherwise commercializing our therapeutic candidates is dependent upon the extent to which we have rights under valid and enforceable patents or trade secrets that cover these activities.

 

We seek to protect our proprietary position by developing a comprehensive intellectual property portfolio including filing patent applications and obtaining granted patents in the United States and abroad related to our therapeutic candidates that are important to our business. If we are unable to obtain or maintain patent protection with respect to a product candidate we may develop, or if the scope of the patent protection secured is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize products and technology similar or identical to ours and our ability to commercialize that product candidate may be adversely affected.

 

The patent prosecution process is expensive, time-consuming, and complex, and we may not be able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce, or license all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner. In addition, we may not pursue or obtain patent protection in all relevant markets. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output in time to obtain patent protection. Although we enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors, and other third parties, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection. In addition, our ability to obtain and maintain valid and enforceable patents depends on whether the differences between our inventions and the prior art allow our inventions to be patentable over the prior art. Furthermore, publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our patents or pending patent applications, or that we were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions.

 

The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions, and has been the subject of much litigation in recent years. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability, and commercial value of our patent rights are uncertain and we may become involved in complex and costly litigation. Our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued which protect therapeutic candidates or effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and therapeutic candidates.

 

Changes in either the patent laws or their interpretation in the United States and other countries may diminish our ability to protect our inventions, obtain, maintain, enforce and defend our intellectual property rights and, more generally, could affect the value of our intellectual property or narrow the scope of our owned and licensed patent rights. We also cannot predict whether the patent applications we are currently pursuing will issue as patents in any particular jurisdiction or whether the claims of any issued patents will be valid and enforceable and provide sufficient protection from competitors. Any patents that we own or in-license may be challenged, narrowed, circumvented, or invalidated by third parties. Consequently, we do not know whether any therapeutic candidates we may develop will be protectable or remain protected by valid and enforceable patents. Our competitors or other third parties may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner.

 

In addition, given the amount of time required for the development, testing, and regulatory review of new therapeutic candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our intellectual property may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours. Moreover, some of our owned patents and patent applications may in the future be, co-owned by us with third parties. If we are unable to obtain an exclusive license to such third-party co-owners’ interest in such patents or patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners of our patents in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations, and prospects.

 

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Our patents and patent applications contain claims directed to compositions of matter on therapeutic candidates, as well as methods directed to the use of such therapeutic candidates for treatment of specific indications. Method-of-use patents do not prevent a competitor or other third party from developing or marketing an identical product for an indication that is outside the scope of the patented method. Moreover, with respect to method-of-use patents, even if competitors or other third parties do not actively promote their product for our targeted indications or uses for which we may obtain patents, providers may recommend that patients use these products off-label, or patients may do so themselves.

 

The strength of patents in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical field involves complex legal and scientific questions and can be uncertain. The patent applications that we own may fail to result in issued patents with claims that cover our therapeutic candidates or uses thereof in the United States or in other foreign countries. For example, while our patent applications are pending, we may be subject to a third party pre-issuance submission of prior art to the USPTO or become involved in interference or derivation proceedings, or equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions. Even if patents do successfully issue, third parties may challenge their inventorship, validity, enforceability or scope, including through opposition, revocation, reexamination, post-grant and inter partes review proceedings. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate or render unenforceable certain patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or therapeutic candidates and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third-party patent rights. Moreover, we may have to participate in interference proceedings declared by the USPTO to determine priority of invention or in post-grant challenge proceedings, such as oppositions in a foreign patent office, that challenge features of patentability with respect to one or more patents and patent applications. Such challenges may result in loss of patent rights, loss of exclusivity, or in patent claims being narrowed, invalidated, or held unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and therapeutic candidates. Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our intellectual property or prevent others from designing around our claims. If the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to develop, and threaten our ability to commercialize, our therapeutic candidates. Further, if we encounter delays in development, testing, and regulatory review of new therapeutic candidates, the period of time during which we could market our therapeutic candidates under patent protection would be reduced.

 

Given that patent applications in the United States and other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing, at any moment in time, we cannot be certain that we were in the past or will be in the future the first to file any patent application related to our therapeutic candidates. In addition, some patent applications in the United States may be maintained in secrecy until the patents are issued. As a result, there may be prior art of which we are not aware that may affect the validity or enforceability of a patent claim, and we may be subject to priority disputes. We may in the future become a party to proceedings or priority disputes in Europe or other foreign jurisdictions. The loss of priority for, or the loss of, these patents could have a material adverse effect on the conduct of our business.

 

We may be required to disclaim part or all of the term of certain patents or patent applications. There may be prior art of which we are not aware that may affect the validity or enforceability of a patent claim. There also may be prior art of which we or potential future licensors are aware, but which we or those licensors do not believe affects the validity or enforceability of a claim, which may, nonetheless, ultimately be found to affect the validity or enforceability of a claim. No assurance can be given that, if challenged, our patents would be declared by a court, patent office or other governmental authority to be valid or enforceable or that even if found valid and enforceable, a competitor’s technology or product would be found by a court to infringe our patents. We may analyze patents or patent applications of our competitors that we believe are relevant to our activities, and consider that we are free to operate in relation to our therapeutic candidates or if applicable challenge the validity of any issued patents, but our competitors may achieve issued claims, including in patents we consider to be unrelated, that block our efforts or potentially result in our therapeutic candidates or our activities infringing such claims. It is possible that our competitors may have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications covering our products or technology similar to ours. Those patent applications may have priority over our patent applications or patents, which could require us to obtain rights to issued patents covering such technologies. The possibility also exists that others will develop products that have the same effect as our therapeutic candidates on an independent basis that do not infringe our patents or other intellectual property rights, or will design around the claims of our patent applications or our in-licensed patents or patent applications that cover our therapeutic candidates.

 

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Likewise, our current patents and patent applications directed to our therapeutic candidates are expected to expire from December 2035 through May 2040 (upon issuing as patents), without taking into account any possible patent term adjustments or extensions. Our patents may expire before, or soon after, our first product candidate achieves marketing approval in the United States or foreign jurisdictions. Additionally, no assurance can be given that the USPTO or relevant foreign patent offices will grant any of the pending patent applications we own or in-license currently or in the future. Upon the expiration of our current patents, we may lose the right to exclude others from practicing these inventions. The expiration of these patents could also have a similar material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

We may also be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators, or other third parties have an interest in our patents or patent applications or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. If we are unable to obtain an exclusive license to any such third-party co-owners’ interest in such patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license their rights to other third parties, including our competitors. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners to enforce any patents that issue from such patent applications against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us.

 

If we are unsuccessful in any interference proceedings or other priority, validity (including any patent oppositions), or inventorship disputes to which we may be subject, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights through the loss of one or more of our owned, licensed, or optioned patents, or such patent claims may be narrowed, invalidated, or held unenforceable, or through loss of exclusive ownership of or the exclusive right to use our patents. In the event of loss of patent rights as a result of any of these disputes, we may be required to obtain and maintain licenses from third parties, including parties involved in any such interference proceedings or other priority or inventorship disputes. Such licenses may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or may be non-exclusive. If we are unable to obtain and maintain such licenses, we may need to cease the development, manufacture, and commercialization of one or more of the therapeutic candidates we may develop. The loss of exclusivity or the narrowing of our patent claims could limit our ability to stop others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and therapeutic candidates. Even if we are successful in an interference proceeding or other similar priority or inventorship disputes, it could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees. Any of the foregoing could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or prospects.

 

We have intellectual property coverage for our therapeutic candidates in the United States, Europe, and other territories, but our foreign intellectual property rights are not exhaustive.

 

We have intellectual property for our therapeutic candidates in many key markets such as the United States and Europe. However, we do not have intellectual property rights in every country throughout the world. Filing, prosecuting, and defending patents on therapeutic candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States, and Europe can be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws of foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws of the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection but where enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our therapeutic candidates and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

 

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Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology and pharmaceutical products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products against third parties in violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patents and intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate, and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Moreover, the initiation of proceedings by third parties to challenge the scope or validity of our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business and / or the limitation or loss of key patent rights. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

 

Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors is forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected.

 

We may enter into license agreements for intellectual property rights in the future and if we fail to comply with our obligations in such agreements or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors or research and development partners, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.

 

We cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist which might be enforced against our current technology, resulting in either an injunction prohibiting our manufacture or future sales, or, with respect to our future sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation to third parties, which could be significant. It is possible that our ability to commercialize some therapeutic candidates in the United States and abroad may be adversely affected if we cannot obtain a license to any potentially relevant third-party patents on commercially reasonable terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment. In addition, the licensing or acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a highly competitive area, and other, potentially more established companies may pursue strategies to license or acquire third party intellectual property rights that we may, in the future, consider attractive or necessary. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, capital resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. Further, even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors and other third parties access to the same technologies licensed to us, and it could require us to make substantial licensing and royalty payments. Even if we believe third-party intellectual property claims are without merit, there is no assurance that a court would find in our favor on questions of infringement, validity, enforceability, or priority. In order to successfully challenge the validity of any such U.S. patent in federal court, we would need to overcome a presumption of validity. As this burden is a high one requiring us to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of any such U.S. patent claim, there is no assurance that a court of competent jurisdiction would invalidate the claims of any such U.S. patent. As such, we could be forced, including by court order, to cease developing, manufacturing, and commercializing the infringing technology or therapeutic candidates. In addition, we could be found liable for significant monetary damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees, if we are found to have willfully infringed a patent or other intellectual property right. Thus, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to redesign our technology, therapeutic candidates, or the methods for manufacturing them or to develop or license replacement technology, or we may need to abandon development of the relevant program or product candidate, all of which may not be feasible on a technical or commercial basis and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

 

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The intellectual property landscape pertaining to live biotherapeutics is in constant flux.

 

The field of Live Biotherapeutics is still in its infancy, and few if any therapeutic candidates have reached the market. Due to the intense research and development that is taking place by several companies, including us and our competitors, in this field, the intellectual property landscape is evolving and in flux, and it may remain uncertain for the coming years. There may be significant intellectual property related litigation and proceedings relating to intellectual property and proprietary rights in the future.

 

Our commercial success depends upon our ability and the ability of future collaborators to develop, manufacture, market, and sell any therapeutic candidates that we may develop and use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties. The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights as well as administrative proceedings for challenging patents, including interference, derivation, inter partes review, post grant review, and reexamination proceedings before the USPTO or oppositions and other comparable proceedings in foreign jurisdictions. We are, and may in the future be subject to and may in the future become party to, or threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights including interference proceedings, post-grant review, inter partes review, and derivation proceedings before the USPTO and similar proceedings in foreign jurisdictions such as oppositions before the EPO. Currently three of our European patents have been challenged by third parties in Opposition proceedings before the EPO. One of these patents has been revoked by the EPO at the first instance. We disagree with the EPO’s decision and have filed an appeal. Under European law the patent is considered to be in good standing until a final decision from the appeal. Another of our three challenged patents was upheld in amended form. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications that are owned by third parties exist in the fields in which we are developing our therapeutic candidates and they may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future, regardless of their merit.

 

As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our therapeutic candidates may give rise to claims of infringement of the patent rights of others. Moreover, it is not always clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover various types of therapies, products or their methods of use or manufacture. There may be third-party patents or patent application with claims to technologies, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our therapeutic candidates. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications that may later result in issued patents that our therapeutic candidates may infringe. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents.

 

Defense of third-party claims of infringement of misappropriation, or violation of intellectual property rights involves substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of management and employee time and resources from our business. Some third parties may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our operations or could otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Any of the foregoing events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents, which could be expensive, time consuming, and unsuccessful and could result in a finding that such patents are unenforceable or invalid.

 

Competitors may infringe our patents, or we may be required to defend against claims of infringement. In addition, our patents also are, and may in the future become, involved in inventorship, priority, validity or enforceability disputes. Countering or defending against such claims can be expensive and time consuming. In future infringement proceedings, a court may decide that a patent owned by us is invalid or unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our owned or any in-licensed patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly.

 

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In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity and/or unenforceability are commonplace, and there are numerous grounds upon which a third party can assert invalidity or unenforceability of a patent. Third parties may also raise similar claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. These types of mechanisms include re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings, and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). These types of proceedings could result in revocation or amendment to our patents such that they no longer cover our therapeutic candidates. The outcome for any particular patent following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we, our patent counsel and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, or if we are otherwise unable to adequately protect our rights, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our technology and/or therapeutic candidates. Defense of these types of claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business.

 

Conversely, we may choose to challenge the patentability of claims in a third party’s U.S. patent by requesting that the USPTO review the patent claims in re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings, and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). We are currently challenging, and in the future may choose to challenge, third party patents in patent opposition proceedings in the European Patent Office (the “EPO”) or before another foreign patent office. Even if successful, the costs of these opposition proceedings could be substantial, and may consume our time or other resources. If we fail to obtain a favorable result at the USPTO, EPO or other patent office then we may be exposed to litigation by a third party alleging that the patent may be infringed by our therapeutic candidates or other proprietary technologies.

 

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation in the US and certain other jurisdictions, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing, or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.

 

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment, and other requirements imposed by government patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

 

Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, and various other government fees on patents and applications are due to be paid to the USPTO and foreign patent agencies outside of the United States over the lifetime of our patents and applications. The USPTO and foreign patent agencies require compliance with several procedural, documentary, fee payment, and other similar provisions during the patent application process. While an inadvertent lapse can ordinarily be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations, however, in which non-compliance can result a partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Were a noncompliance event to occur, our competitors might be able to enter the market with similar or identical products or technology, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

 

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Changes in patent law in the United States and in non-U.S. jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our therapeutic candidates.

 

As is the case with other biotech and pharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biopharmaceutical industry involve both technological and legal complexity, and is therefore costly, time-consuming and inherently uncertain.

 

Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents. For example, in March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the America Invents Act, the United States transitioned from a “first to invent” to a “first-to-file” patent system. Under a “first-to-file” system, assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application generally will be entitled to a patent on an invention regardless of whether another inventor had made the invention earlier. A third party that files a patent application in the USPTO after March 2013, but before us could therefore be awarded a patent covering an invention of ours even if we had made the invention before it was made by such third party. This will require us to be cognizant going forward of the time from invention to filing of a patent application. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing or until issuance, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors were the first to either file any patent application related to our technology or therapeutic candidates or invent any of the inventions claimed in our or our licensor’s patents or patent applications. The America Invents Act also includes a number of other significant changes to U.S. patent law, including provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted, allowing third party submission of prior art and establish a new post-grant review system including post-grant review, inter partes review, and derivation proceedings. Because of a lower evidentiary standard in USPTO proceedings compared to the evidentiary standard in United States federal courts necessary to invalidate a patent claim, a third party could potentially provide evidence in a USPTO proceeding sufficient for the USPTO to hold a claim invalid even though the same evidence would be insufficient to invalidate the claim if first presented in a district court action. Accordingly, a third party may attempt to use the USPTO procedures to invalidate our patent claims that would not have been invalidated if first challenged by the third party as a defendant in a district court action. The effects of these changes are currently unclear as the USPTO continues to promulgate new regulations and procedures in connection with the America Invents Act and many of the substantive changes to patent law, including the “first-to-file” provisions, only became effective in March 2013. In addition, the courts have yet to address many of these provisions and the applicability of the act and new regulations on the specific patents discussed in this filing have not been determined and would need to be reviewed. Thus, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the America Invents Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents.

 

In addition, recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. These cases include Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., 569 U.S. 12-398 (2013) or Myriad; Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International, 573 U.S. 13-298 (2014); and Collaborative Services v. Prometheus Laboratories, Inc., or Prometheus, 566 U.S. 10-1150 (2012). In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents, once obtained. Depending on future actions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future. For example, in the case, Assoc. for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court held that certain claims to DNA molecules are not patentable, but claims to complementary DNA, or cDNA, molecules, which are not genomic sequences, may be patent eligible because they are not a natural product. The effect of the decision on patents for other isolated natural products is uncertain. However, on March 4, 2014, the USPTO issued a memorandum to patent examiners providing guidance for examining claims that recite laws of nature, natural phenomena or natural products under the Myriad and Prometheus decisions. The guidance did not limit the application of Myriad to DNA but, rather, applied the decision broadly to other natural products, which may include our therapeutic candidates. The March 4, 2014 memorandum and the USPTO’s interpretation of the cases and announced examination rubric received widespread criticism from stakeholders during a public comment period and was superseded by interim guidance published on December 15, 2014. We cannot predict how this and future decisions by the courts, the U.S. Congress or the USPTO may impact the value of our patents. Any similar adverse changes in the patent laws of other jurisdictions could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

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Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our therapeutic candidates for an adequate amount of time.

 

Patents have a limited lifespan. The terms of individual patents depends upon the legal term for patents in the countries in which they are granted. In most countries, including the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest non-provisional filing date in the applicable country. However, the actual protection afforded by a patent varies from country to country, and depends upon many factors, including the type of patent, the scope of its coverage, the availability of regulatory-related extensions, the availability of legal remedies in a particular country and the validity and enforceability of the patent. Various extensions including PTE and PTA, may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. For more information regarding PTA and PTE, please see “Business— Intellectual Property.” Even if patents covering our therapeutic candidates are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition from competitive products, including generics. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new therapeutic candidates, patents protecting our therapeutic candidates might expire before or shortly after we or our partners commercialize those candidates. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

 

If we do not obtain Patent Term Extension (“PTE”) for any therapeutic candidates we may develop, our business may be materially harmed.

 

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of any FDA marketing approval of any therapeutic candidates we may develop, one or more of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited PTE under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. Analogous extensions of patent term may be available upon marketing approval in other jurisdictions. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments PTE term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. A PTE cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, only one patent per product may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. However, even if we were to seek a PTE or corresponding extension of patent term in other jurisdictions, it may not be granted because of, for example, the failure to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, the failure to apply within applicable deadlines, the failure to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents, or any other failure to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the applicable time period or the scope of patent protection afforded could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain PTE or a corresponding extension of patent term in other jurisdictions, or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors may be able to launch competing products earlier than anticipated following our patent expiration, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially harmed.

 

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

 

In addition to seeking patents for our technology and therapeutic candidates, we also rely on know-how and trade secret protection, as well as confidentiality agreements, non-disclosure agreements and invention assignment agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties, to protect our confidential and proprietary information, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable.

 

It is our policy to require our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors, and other third parties to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us. These agreements provide that all confidential information concerning our business or financial affairs developed by or made known to the individual or entity during the course of the party’s relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties, except in certain specified circumstances. In the case of employees, the agreements provide that all inventions conceived by the individual, and that are related to our current or planned business or research and development or made during normal working hours, on our premises or using our equipment or proprietary information, are our exclusive property. In the case of consultants and other third parties, the agreements provide that all inventions conceived in connection with the services provided are our exclusive property. However, we cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes. Additionally, the assignment of intellectual property rights may not be self-executing, or the assignment agreements may be breached, and we may be forced to bring claims against third parties, or defend claims that they may bring against us, to determine the ownership of what we regard as our intellectual property. Any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable.

 

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In addition to contractual measures, we try to protect the confidential nature of our proprietary information through other appropriate precautions, such as physical and technological security measures. However, trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. These measures may not, for example, in the case of misappropriation of a trade secret by an employee or third party with authorized access, provide adequate protection for our proprietary information. Our security measures may not prevent an employee or consultant from misappropriating our trade secrets and providing them to a competitor, and any recourse we might take against this type of misconduct may not provide an adequate remedy to protect our interests fully. In addition, trade secrets may be independently developed by others in a manner that could prevent us from receiving legal recourse. If any of our confidential or proprietary information, such as our trade secrets, were to be disclosed or misappropriated, or if any of that information was independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position could be harmed.

 

In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are sometimes less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If we choose to go to court to stop a third party from using any of our trade secrets, we may incur substantial costs. Even if we are successful, these types of lawsuits may consume our time and other resources. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

Third parties may assert that our employees, consultants, or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information or misappropriated trade secrets.

 

As is common in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, we employ individuals that are currently or were previously employed at universities, research institutions or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants, and advisors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such individual’s current or former employer. Also, we have in the past and may in the future be subject to claims that these individuals are violating non-compete agreements with their former employers. We may then have to pursue litigation to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and, if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, that perception could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. This type of litigation or proceeding could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce our resources available for development activities, and we may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct this type of litigation or proceedings. For example, some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of this type of litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their substantially greater financial resources. In any case, uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of intellectual property litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings could adversely affect our ability to compete in the marketplace.

 

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If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

 

Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition among potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. At times, competitors or other third parties may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

 

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats.

 

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations and may not adequately protect our business or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. For example:

 

  any therapeutic candidates we may develop will likely eventually become commercially available in generic or biosimilar product forms;
     
  others may be able to make live biotherapeutic products that are similar to any therapeutic candidates we may develop but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or may own in the future;
     
  we, or our current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent application that we own or may own in the future;
     
  we, or our current or future collaborators, might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our or their inventions;
     
  we, or our current or future collaborators, may fail to meet our obligations to the U.S. government regarding any patents and patent applications funded by U.S. government grants, leading to the loss or unenforceability of patent rights;
     
  others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;
     
  it is possible that our pending patent applications or those that we may own in the future will not lead to issued patents;
     
  it is possible that there are prior public disclosures that could invalidate our patents, or parts of our patents;
     
  it is possible that there are unpublished applications or patent applications maintained in secrecy that may later issue with claims covering our therapeutic candidates or technology similar to ours
     
  it is possible that our patents or patent applications omit individual(s) that should be listed as inventor(s) or include individual(s) that should not be listed as inventor(s), which may cause these patents or patents issuing from these patent applications to be held invalid or unenforceable;
     
  issued patents that we hold rights to may be held invalid, unenforceable, or narrowed in scope, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;
     
  the claims of our issued patents or patent applications, if and when issued, may not cover our therapeutic candidates;

 

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  the laws of foreign countries may not protect our proprietary rights or the proprietary rights of current or future collaborators to the same extent as the laws of the United States;
     
  the inventors of our patents or patent applications may become involved with competitors, develop products or processes that design around our patents, or become hostile to us or the patents or patent applications on which they are named as inventors;
     
  our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;
     
  we have engaged in scientific collaborations in the past and will continue to do so in the future and our collaborators may develop adjacent or competing products that are outside the scope of our patents;
     
  we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;
     
  any therapeutic candidates we develop may be covered by third parties’ patents or other exclusive rights;
     
  the patents of others may harm our business; or
     
  we may choose not to file a patent in order to maintain certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property.

 

Should any of these events occur, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

 

Risks Related to Our Business Operations and Compliance with Government Regulations

 

Our operations and financial results could be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, United States and the rest of the world.

 

In December 2019, COVID-19 was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China, resulting in significant disruptions to Chinese manufacturing and travel. COVID-19 has now spread to numerous other countries, including the United Kingdom and United States, resulting in the World Health Organization characterizing COVID-19 as a pandemic. As a result of measures imposed by the governments in affected regions, many commercial activities, businesses and schools have been suspended as part of quarantines and other measures intended to contain this pandemic. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread around the globe, we may experience disruptions that could severely impact our business and clinical trials, including:

 

  delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials;
     
  delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;
     
  diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of clinical trials;
     
  interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others;
     
  limitations in resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our business or our clinical trials, including because of sickness or the desire to avoid contact with large groups of people or as a result of government-imposed “shelter in place” or similar working restrictions;

 

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  delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities to initiate our planned clinical trials;
     
  delays in clinical sites receiving the supplies and materials needed to conduct our clinical trials;
     
  interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials, such as investigational drug product used in our clinical trials;
     
  changes in regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 pandemic which may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, or to discontinue the clinical trials altogether, or which may result in unexpected costs; and
     
  delays in necessary interactions with regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government or contractor personnel.

 

We are still assessing the impact that COVID-19 may have on our ability to effectively conduct our business operations as planned and there can be no assurance that we will be able to avoid a material impact on our business from the spread of COVID-19 or its consequences, including disruption to our business and downturns in business sentiment generally or in our industry. A significant proportion of our employees are currently telecommuting, which may impact certain of our operations over the near term and long term.

 

Additionally, certain third parties with whom we engage, including our collaborators, contract organizations, third party manufacturers, suppliers, clinical trial sites, regulators and other third parties with whom we conduct business are similarly adjusting their operations and assessing their capacity in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. If these third parties experience shutdowns or continued business disruptions, our ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively impacted. For example, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there could be delays in the manufacturing supply chain for our clinical trials, which could delay or otherwise impact our ongoing clinical programs in oncology and respiratory disease. We may also experience delays in procurement of materials for certain aspects of our studies due to the pandemic, which could impact our ability to conduct prespecified analysis.

 

Additionally, certain preclinical studies for our discovery research programs are conducted by CROs, which could be discontinued or delayed as a result of the pandemic. It is also likely that the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on hospitals and clinical sites will have an impact on recruitment and retention for our clinical trials.

 

In addition, certain of our clinical trial sites have experienced, and others may experience in the future, delays in collecting, receiving and analyzing data from patients enrolled in our clinical trials. For example, we experience delays to our study of MRx-4DP0004 in patients with partly controlled asthma due to limited staff at sites, limitation or suspension of on-site visits by patients, or patients’ reluctance to visit the clinical trial sites during the pandemic. We and our CROs have also made certain adjustments to the operation of such trials in an effort to ensure the monitoring and safety of patients and to minimize risks to trial integrity during the pandemic in accordance with the guidance issued by the FDA on March 18, 2020, which the FDA subsequently updated, and generally. We may need to make further adjustments in the future, including those based on additional and future regulatory requirements promulgated by the FDA and other regulatory authorities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many of these adjustments are new and untested, may not be effective, and may have unforeseen effects on the enrolment, progress and completion of these trials and the findings from these trials. While we are currently continuing our clinical trials and considering adding new clinical trial sites to accelerate patient recruitment, we may not be successful in adding trial sites, may experience delays in patient enrolment or in the progression of our clinical trials, may need to suspend our clinical trials, and may encounter other negative impacts to our trials, due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to rapidly evolve. While the extent of the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on our business and financial results is uncertain, a continued and prolonged public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic could have a material negative impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

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Our success is highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled executive officers and employees.

 

To succeed, we must recruit, retain, manage and motivate qualified clinical, scientific, technical and management personnel, and we face significant competition for experienced personnel. We are highly dependent on the principal members of our management and scientific and medical staff. If we do not succeed in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, particularly at the management level, it could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan and harm our operating results. In particular, the loss of one or more of our executive officers could be detrimental to us if we cannot recruit suitable replacements in a timely manner. We could in the future have difficulty attracting and retaining experienced personnel and may be required to expend significant financial resources in our employee recruitment and retention efforts.

 

Many of the other biotechnology companies that we compete against for qualified personnel have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and a longer history in the industry than we do. They also may provide higher compensation, more diverse opportunities and better prospects for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates than what we have to offer. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain high-quality personnel, the rate and success at which we can discover, develop and commercialize our therapeutic candidates will be limited and the potential for successfully growing our business will be harmed.

 

Additionally, we rely on our scientific founders and other scientific and clinical advisors and consultants to assist us in formulating our research, development and clinical strategies. These advisors and consultants are not our employees and may have commitments to, or consulting or advisory contracts with, other entities that may limit their availability to us. In addition, these advisors and consultants typically will not enter into non-compete agreements with us. If a conflict of interest arises between their work for us and their work for another entity, we may lose their services. Furthermore, our advisors may have arrangements with other companies to assist those companies in developing products or technologies that may compete with ours. In particular, if we are unable to maintain consulting relationships with our scientific founders or if they provide services to our competitors, our development and commercialization efforts will be impaired and our business will be significantly harmed.

 

In order to successfully implement our plans and strategies, we will need to grow the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had 92 employees, including 40 employees in the United Kingdom and one employee in the United States. Of these employees, 78 were engaged in research and development activities and 14 were engaged in administrative activities. In order to successfully implement our development and commercialization plans and strategies, and we expect to need additional managerial, operational, sales, marketing, financial and other personnel. Future growth would impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including:

 

  identifying, recruiting, integrating, maintaining and motivating additional employees;
     
  managing our internal development efforts effectively, including the commercial, clinical and regulatory development of MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and any other therapeutic candidates, while complying with any contractual obligations to contractors and other third parties we may have; and
     
  improving our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.

 

Our future financial performance and our ability to successfully develop and commercialize MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and other therapeutic candidates will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth, and our management may also have to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities in order to devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities.

 

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We currently rely, and for the foreseeable future will continue to rely, in substantial part on certain independent organizations, advisors and consultants to provide certain services, including key aspects of clinical development and manufacturing. We cannot assure you that the services of independent organizations, advisors and consultants will continue to be available to us on a timely basis when needed, or that we can find qualified replacements. In addition, if we are unable to effectively manage our outsourced activities or if the quality or accuracy of the services provided by third party service providers is compromised for any reason, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval of MRx0518 and MRx-4DP0004 and any other therapeutic candidates or otherwise advance our business. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our existing third-party service providers or find other competent outside contractors and consultants on economically reasonable terms, or at all.

 

If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and/or engaging additional third-party service providers, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and other therapeutic candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

 

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.

 

Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly in the future, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. From time to time, we may enter into license or collaboration agreements or strategic partnerships with other companies that include development funding and significant upfront and milestone payments and/or royalties, which may become an important source of our revenue. These upfront and milestone payments may vary significantly from period to period and any such variance could cause a significant fluctuation in our operating results from one period to the next.

 

In addition, we measure compensation cost for stock-based awards made to employees at the grant date of the award, based on the fair value of the award as determined by our board of directors, and recognize the cost as an expense over the employee’s requisite service period. As the variables that we use as a basis for valuing these awards change over time, including, after the closing of this offering, our underlying share price and stock price volatility, the magnitude of the expense that we must recognize may vary significantly.

 

Furthermore, our operating results may fluctuate due to a variety of other factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including the following:

 

  the timing and cost of, and level of investment in, research and development activities relating to our current therapeutic candidates and any future therapeutic candidates and research-stage programs, which will change from time to time;
     
  our ability to enroll patients in clinical trials and the timing of enrolment;
     
  the cost of manufacturing our current therapeutic candidates and any future therapeutic candidates, which may vary depending on FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authority guidelines and requirements, the quantity of production and the terms of our agreements with manufacturers;
     
  expenditures that we will or may incur to acquire or develop additional therapeutic candidates and technologies or other assets;
     
  the timing and outcomes of clinical trials for MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix, and any of our other therapeutic candidates, or competing therapeutic candidates;
     
  the need to conduct unanticipated clinical trials or trials that are larger or more complex than anticipated;

 

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  competition from existing and potential future products that compete with MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and any of our other therapeutic candidates, and changes in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or partners;
     
  any delays in regulatory review or approval of MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix or any of our other therapeutic candidates;
     
  the level of demand for MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and any of our other therapeutic candidates, if approved, which may fluctuate significantly and be difficult to predict;
     
  the risk/benefit profile, cost and reimbursement policies with respect to our therapeutic candidates, if approved, and existing and potential future products that compete with MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and any of our other therapeutic candidates;
     
  our ability to commercialize MRx0518, MRx-4DP0004, MRx0029, Blautix and Thetanix and any of our other therapeutic candidates, if approved, inside and outside of the United States, either independently or working with third parties;
     
  our ability to establish and maintain collaborations, licensing or other arrangements;
   
  our ability to adequately support future growth;
     
  potential unforeseen business disruptions that increase our costs or expenses;
     
  future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies; and
     
  the changing and volatile global economic and political environment.

 

The cumulative effect of these factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, or if the forecasts we provide to the market are below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Such a stock price decline could occur even when we have met any previously publicly stated guidance we may provide.

 

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Our internal computer systems, or those of any of our CROs, manufacturers, other contractors or consultants or potential future collaborators, may fail or suffer security or data privacy breaches or other unauthorized or improper access to, use of, or destruction of our proprietary or confidential data, employee data, or personal data, which could result in additional costs, loss of revenue, significant liabilities, harm to our brand and material disruption of our operations.

 

Despite the implementation of security measures in an effort to protect systems that store our information, given their size and complexity and the increasing amounts of information maintained on our internal information technology systems, and those of our third-party CROs, other contractors (including sites performing our clinical trials) and consultants, these systems are potentially vulnerable to breakdown or other damage or interruption from service interruptions, system malfunction, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, as well as security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, contractors, consultants, business partners, and/or other third parties, or from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties (including the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information), which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to the loss, destruction, alteration or dissemination of, or damage to, our data. For example, companies have experienced an increase in phishing and social engineering attacks from third parties in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss, destruction, unavailability, alteration or dissemination of, or damage to, our data or applications, or for it to be believed or reported that any of these occurred, we could incur liability and reputational damage and the development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates could be delayed. We cannot assure you that our data protection efforts and our investment in information technology, or the efforts or investments of CROs, consultants or other third parties, will prevent significant breakdowns or breaches in systems or other cyber incidents that cause loss, destruction, unavailability, alteration or dissemination of, or damage to, our data that could have a material adverse effect upon our reputation, business, operations or financial condition. For example, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our programs and the development of our therapeutic candidates could be delayed. In addition, the loss of clinical trial data for our therapeutic candidates could result in delays in our marketing approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Furthermore, significant disruptions of our internal information technology systems or security breaches could result in the loss, misappropriation, and/or unauthorized access, use, or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, data (including trade secrets or other confidential information, intellectual property, proprietary business information, and personal information), which could result in financial, legal, business, and reputational harm to us. For example, any such event that leads to unauthorized access, use, or disclosure of personal information, including personal information regarding our clinical trial subjects or employees, could harm our reputation directly, compel us to comply with federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, subject us to mandatory corrective action, and otherwise subject us to liability under laws and regulations that protect the privacy and security of personal information, which could result in significant legal and financial exposure and reputational damages that could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.

 

Notifications and follow-up actions related to a security incident could impact our reputation and cause us to incur significant costs, including legal expenses and remediation costs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the lost data. We expect to incur significant costs in an effort to detect and prevent security incidents, and we may face increased costs and requirements to expend substantial resources in the event of an actual or perceived security breach. We also rely on third parties to manufacture our therapeutic candidates, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business. To the extent that any disruption or security incident were to result in a loss, destruction or alteration of, or damage to, our data, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could be exposed to litigation and governmental investigations, the further development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates could be delayed, and we could be subject to significant fines or penalties for any noncompliance with certain state, federal and/or international privacy and security laws.

 

Our insurance policies may not be adequate to compensate us for the potential losses arising from any such disruption in or, failure or security breach of our systems or third-party systems where information important to our business operations or commercial development is stored. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all. Further, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us and could have high deductibles in any event, and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management attention.

 

The collection, processing and cross-border transfer of personal information is subject to restrictive laws and regulations.

 

We are subject to privacy and data protection laws and regulations that apply to the collection, transmission, storage and use of personally identifiable information. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data protection continues to evolve, and there has been an increasing amount of focus on compliance in this area, with the potential to affect our business.

 

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In the EU, the collection and use of personal data (including health data) is governed by the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (the “EU GDPR”) which became effective and enforceable across all then-current member states of the EU on May 25, 2018. In the United Kingdom, following the end of the transition period for the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU on December 31, 2021, the GDPR has been retained as part of domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018. The retained law – the UK GDPR – continues to apply alongside the Data Protection Act 2018 (the “UK Data Protection Laws”). The UK GDPR has been modified to reflect the fact that the United Kingdom is no longer a member of the EU. The EU GDPR and the UK GDPR are together referred to as the “GDPR”.

 

The GDPR enhances data protection obligations for both processors and controllers of personal data, including by materially expanding the definition of what is expressly noted to constitute personal data, requiring additional disclosures about how personal data is to be used, creating mandatory personal data breach notification requirements in certain circumstances, and establishing onerous new obligations on services providers who process personal data solely on behalf of others, as well as obligations regarding the security and confidentiality of the personal data. The EU GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the European Economic Area to third countries, including the United States. The UK GDPR contains equivalent rules on the transfer of personal data out of the United Kingdom. The GDPR has expanded its reach to include any business, regardless of its location, that processes personal data in relation to the offering of goods or services to individuals in the EU and/or the monitoring of their behavior. The UK GDPR has equivalent extra territorial application in relation to the offering of goods or services to individuals in the United Kingdom and/or the monitoring of their behavior. This expansion would incorporate any clinical trial activities in the United Kingdom or EU member states (as applicable). The GDPR prohibits controllers from processing “special categories of personal data” which includes health and genetic information of data subjects, unless a specific derogation applies (such as the data subject has given his explicit consent to the processing of such data). The GDPR also data subjects a swathe of rights, including the right to object to the processing of their personal data, allows them to access their personal data, request deletion of personal data in certain circumstances, and provides an express right to seek legal remedies in the event the individual believes his or her rights have been violated. Failure to comply with the requirements of the GDPR may result in fines of up to 4% of an undertaking’s total global annual turnover for the preceding financial year, or €20 million, whichever is greater. In addition to administrative fines, a wide variety of other potential enforcement powers are available to competent authorities in respect of potential and suspected violations of the GDPR, including extensive audit and inspection rights, and powers to order temporary or permanent bans on all or some processing of personal data carried out by noncompliant actors. While we have taken steps to comply with the GDPR, and implementing legislation in the United Kingdom and applicable member states, including by seeking to establish appropriate lawful bases for the various processing activities we carry out as a controller, reviewing our security procedures, and entering into data processing agreements with relevant customers and business partners, we cannot guarantee that our efforts to achieve and remain in compliance have been, and/or will continue to be, fully successful.

 

Businesses based in the United Kingdom who offer goods or services to individuals in the EU and/or monitor their behavior (and vice versa) are now subject to both the GDPR (“EU GDPR”) and the UK GDPR. This may result in some duplication of liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses in connection with measures taken to comply with the two separate laws. In particular, there are now two parallel enforcement regimes, each with the power to impose fines up to the greater of either 4% of total global annual turnover, or €20 million (under the EU GDPR) or £17.5 million (under the UK GDPR).

 

In addition, the United Kingdom is now considered a “third country” under the EU GDPR and EU countries are considered “third countries” under the UK GDPR, which may have an impact on transfers of personal data between the United Kingdom and EU countries.

 

In respect of personal data transfers from the EU to the United Kingdom, on June 28, 2021, the European Commission adopted two adequacy decisions for the United Kingdom— one under the EU GDPR and the other for the Law Enforcement Directive 2016/680. This means that personal data can now flow freely from the EU to the United Kingdom where it benefits from an essentially equivalent level of protection to that guaranteed under EU law. The adequacy decisions also facilitate the correct implementation of the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement, which foresees the exchange of personal data, for example for cooperation on judicial matters. Both adequacy decisions include strong safeguards in case of future divergence such as a ‘sunset clause’, which limits the duration of adequacy to four years.

 

In respect of personal data transfers from the United Kingdom to the EU, transfers of personal data are expressly permitted under the UK Data Protection Laws.

 

The so-called “Schrems II” judgement, which was delivered by the Courts of Justice of the European Union in July 2020 poses a further risk which needs to be noted. The judgement applies both in the EU and the United Kingdom since it was delivered before the end of the transition period. The Schrems II judgement effectively renders unlawful transfers of personal data to entities in the US which are caught by section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, unless additional safeguards are put in place and it raises concerns that transfers to other countries may similarly be deemed unlawful depending on the applicable domestic legal framework. Before engaging in international personal data transfers, United Kingdom and EU entities are now required to assess the local laws which will apply to the data after it is transferred in the context of the personal data transfer, namely taking account of the nature of the data, volume, duration and frequency of the transfers, and likelihood of a request by a public authority.

 

Similarly, failure to comply with federal and state laws in the United States regarding privacy and security of personal information could further expose us to penalties under privacy and data protection laws. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our business.

 

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Our employees, consultants and contractors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements or insider trading violations, which could significantly harm our business.

 

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees, consultants or contractors could include intentional failures to comply with governmental regulations, comply with healthcare fraud and abuse and anti-kickback laws and regulations in the United States, the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions, or failure to report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of, including improper trading based upon information obtained in the course of clinical studies, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a robust compliance program, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business and results of operations, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

 

Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.

 

In the United States, there have been, and continue to be, legislative and regulatory developments regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our therapeutic candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities, and affect our ability to profitably sell any therapeutic candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Additionally, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny in the United States of pharmaceutical pricing practices in light of the rising cost of prescription drugs and biologics. Such scrutiny has resulted in several recent congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for products. While any proposed measures will require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, Congress and the current administration have each indicated that they will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs. At the state level, legislatures are increasingly passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or successfully commercialize our drugs.

 

The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” may adversely impact our ability to obtain regulatory approvals of our therapeutic candidates in the EU, result in restrictions, delays or increased costs for importing our therapeutic candidates into the EU, and may require us to incur additional expenses in order to develop, manufacture and commercialize our therapeutic candidates in the EU.

 

Following the result of a referendum in 2016, the United Kingdom left the EU on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as Brexit. Pursuant to the formal withdrawal arrangements agreed between the United Kingdom and the EU, the United Kingdom was subject to a transition period (the “Transition Period”) during which EU rules continued to apply, which ended on December 31, 2020. Following negotiations, the two sides agreed on a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (“TCA”) on December 24, 2020 to regulate their post-Brexit trade relationship. The TCA has already been ratified by the UK. In the EU, the TCA was applied initially on a provisional basis until 28 February 2021, pending a decision by the European Parliament to assent to the ratification of the TCA by the Council of the EU. The UK-EU Partnership Council has since agreed to an extension of the period for the provisional application of the TCA by the EU to 30 April 30, 2021. It is possible that this time period could be extended beyond April 30, 2021 if the European Parliament has not assented to the ratification before that date.

 

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The TCA provides for a no tariff, no quota on goods trade deal. However, there will now be a need for border controls and checks in importing and exporting goods into the EU, potentially leading to delays and additional costs.

 

Currently, a significant proportion of the regulatory framework in the United Kingdom applicable to our business and our therapeutic candidates is derived from EU directives and regulations. In the immediate post-Brexit period, a lot of EU legislation has been retained as domestic legislation by virtue of the EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (as amended). However, the UK may choose to amend retained legislation over time. This could materially impact the existing regulatory regime with respect to the development, manufacture, importation, approval and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates in the United Kingdom or the EU.

 

Following the Transition Period, the United Kingdom is no longer covered by the centralized procedures for obtaining EU-wide marketing authorization from the European Medicines Agency and a separate process for authorization of drug products, including our therapeutic candidates, will be required in the United Kingdom, the new processes being outlined by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (with existing applications via the centralized procedure being addressed by transitional arrangements). Any delay in obtaining, or an inability to obtain, any marketing approvals, as a result of the new or transitional processes or otherwise, could make it more difficult for us to commercialize our therapeutic candidates in the EU or in the United Kingdom and restrict our ability to generate revenue and achieve and sustain profitability. If any of these outcomes occur, we may be forced to restrict or delay efforts to seek regulatory approval in the United Kingdom or the EU for our therapeutic candidates, or incur significant additional expenses to operate our business, which could significantly and materially harm or delay our ability to generate revenues or achieve profitability of our business.

 

Although the TCA means that we should not be required to pay new tariffs in connection with the importation of our therapeutic candidates from the UK into the EU and vice versa, this will depend upon whether the products satisfy complex rules of origin. If goods being imported into the EU from the UK are not treated under these rules as originating in the UK, EU tariffs may be payable. In the near term there is also a risk of disrupted import and export processes due to a lack of administrative processing capacity by the respective UK and EU customs agencies that may delay time-sensitive shipments and may negatively impact our product supply chain.

 

In addition, in order to benefit from no tariffs, a product must meet complex rules which certify its origins as being from the UK or the EU (or at least, being substantively processed in one or the other). Any further changes in international trade, tariff and import/export regulations as a result of Brexit or otherwise may impose unexpected duty costs or other non-tariff barriers on us. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, may significantly reduce global trade and, in particular, trade between the impacted nations and the United Kingdom.

 

It is also possible that Brexit may negatively affect our ability to attract and retain employees, particularly those from the EU, since free movement of workers between the UK and EU will now require visas and other permits in a number of circumstances, and hence make travel by our employees between our UK, Irish and Spanish facilities more difficult, time-consuming and expensive than previously was the case.

 

Our business may incur VAT in EU states where it is not established and does not make supplies. VAT incurred by the UK companies in the group will not have access to the EU’s electronic system for claiming refunds. Although refunds should still be obtainable, claims will have to be made direct to the relevant tax authorities, which means reclaims could be significantly more complex and slower to process. Such differences have the potential to materially affect cash requirements and costs to the business.

 

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Legal, political and economic uncertainty surrounding Brexit may be a source of instability in international markets, create significant currency fluctuations, adversely affect our operations in the United Kingdom and pose additional risks to our business, revenue, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

While our headquarters are in the United Kingdom, we have subsidiaries elsewhere in the EU, currently in Ireland and Spain, and rely on suppliers elsewhere in the EU. On the one hand, this is helpful to us since having an “establishment” in the EU is now required for compliance with a number of relevant regulatory matters, for example a clinical trials sponsor must either be established in the EU or, if not, appoint a legal representative in an EU27 country. However, since future UK laws and regulations, including financial laws and regulations, tax and free trade agreements, intellectual property rights, data protection laws, supply chain logistics, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws and employment laws, may diverge from EU law and regulation after January 1, 2021, this may negatively impact foreign direct investment in the United Kingdom, increase costs, depress economic activity and restrict access to capital.

 

Although the TCA is agreed between the principals, there is still material clarification required on the detail of how higher-level principles will be reflected into day to day processes and operations. Hence there is still likely to be a degree of uncertainty concerning the United Kingdom’s ongoing legal, political and economic relationship with the EU, which may be a source of instability in the international markets, create significant currency fluctuations, and/or otherwise adversely affect trading agreements or similar cross-border cooperation arrangements (whether economic, tax, fiscal, legal, regulatory or otherwise).

 

These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, have had, and may continue to have, a significant adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and limit the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. In particular, it could also lead to a period of considerable uncertainty in relation to the UK financial and banking markets, as well as on the regulatory process in Europe. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings may also be subject to increased market volatility. The TCA is subject to regular (every five years) review provisions. In addition, each party has the right to take certain trade defense measures unilaterally (which could include the imposition of tariffs or quotas or suspension of certain aspects of the TCA) subject to binding arbitration procedures. Ultimately, either party has the right to require the “rebalancing” of rights and obligations under the TCA in circumstances where there has been a significant and persistent divergence in subsidy-control or environmental and labor regulation. Irrespective of the need to “rebalance” the TCA, each party also has the right to terminate it, by giving 12 months’ notice. Accordingly, the nature of the TCA is such that it creates a lot of uncertainty for businesses.

 

The detail of how the United Kingdom’s access to the European single market for goods, capital, services and labor within the EU, or single market, and the wider commercial, legal and regulatory environment, will impact our UK operations and customers remains to be fully understood. There may continue to be economic uncertainty surrounding the consequences of Brexit, which could adversely impact customer confidence resulting in customers reducing their spending budgets on our products, which could adversely affect our business, revenue, financial condition, results of operations and could adversely affect the market price of our shares and ADSs.

 

Exchange rate fluctuations may adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.

 

Our functional currency is pounds sterling, and our transactions are commonly denominated in that currency. However, we receive payments under our collaboration agreements in U.S. dollars and we incur a portion of our expenses in other currencies, primarily Euros. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates, particularly between the pound sterling on the one hand and the U.S. dollar and Euro on the other hand, may adversely affect our reported results of operations and cash flows. Since the Brexit referendum in 2016, there has been a significant increase in the volatility of these exchange rates and an overall weakening of the pound sterling. Our business and the price of our shares and ADSs may be affected by fluctuations in foreign exchange rates between the pound sterling and these and other currencies, any of which may have a significant impact on our results of operations and cash flows from period to period.

 

If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

 

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.

 

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Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials or other work-related injuries, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

 

Risks Related to Our ADSs and Ordinary Shares

 

We do not know whether listing in the Nasdaq will increase liquidity for our shareholders. We do not know whether an active, liquid and orderly trading market will develop for our ADSs or what the market price of our ADSs will be and as a result it may be difficult for you to sell your ADSs at or above the price you pay for them, if at all.

 

Our ADSs were approved to list on the Nasdaq and began trading on March 22, 2021. However, prior to March 22, 2021, while our ordinary shares had been traded on AIM since February 2014, no public market has previously existed for our ADSs or ordinary shares in the United States. We have undertaken the Merger because we believed that the Merger would provide us and our shareholders, with a number of advantages, including providing our shareholders with securities that we expected would enjoy greater market liquidity than the securities these shareholders currently hold. However, the Merger might not accomplish these objectives. We cannot predict whether a liquid market for 4D Pharma ADSs and existing ordinary shares will be maintained.

 

The lack of an active market for ADSs may impair your ability to sell your shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair market value of the ADSs and could also affect the market price for our ordinary shares on AIM. The price at which ADSs trade on Nasdaq may or may not be correlated with the price at which our ordinary shares trade on AIM.

 

The price of our ordinary shares or ADSs may be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our ordinary shares or ADSs, and we could be subject to securities class action litigation as a result.

 

Our stock price is likely to be volatile. The stock market in general, and the market for smaller biopharmaceutical companies in particular, have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your ADSs at or above the price at which you purchase the shares. The market price for our ordinary shares or our ADSs may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

  the success of competitive products or technologies;
     
  actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;
     
  results of clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates or those of our competitors;
     
  developments related to any future collaborations;
     
  regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;
     
  adverse actions taken by regulatory agencies with respect to our preclinical studies or clinical trials, manufacturing or sales and marketing activities;

 

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  any adverse changes to our relationship with third party contractors or manufacturers;
     
  development of new therapeutic candidates that may address our markets and may make our existing therapeutic candidates less attractive;
     
  changes in physician, hospital or healthcare provider practices that may make our therapeutic candidates less useful;
     
  announcements by us, our collaborators or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;
     
  developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;
     
  the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
     
  the level of expenses related to any of our therapeutic candidates or product development programs;
     
  failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;
     
  press reports or other negative publicity, whether or not true, about our business;
     
  the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional therapeutic candidates or products;
     
  actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
     
  variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
     
  changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;
     
  market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;
     
  the trading volume of our ADSs on Nasdaq or ordinary shares on AIM;
     
  sales of our ADSs or ordinary shares by us, members of our senior management and directors or our shareholders;
     
  general economic, political, and market conditions and overall fluctuations in the financial markets in the United States, the United Kingdom, the EU, and other countries, including the global and regional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic; and
     
  the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.

 

These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for our ordinary shares and ADSs to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from selling their ordinary shares or ADSs at or above the price paid for the ordinary shares or ADSs and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our ordinary shares or ADSs.

 

Some companies that have experienced volatility in the trading price of their shares have been the subject of securities class action litigation. Any lawsuit to which we are a party, with or without merit, may result in an unfavorable judgment. We also may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms.

 

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Any such negative outcome could result in payments of substantial damages or fines, damage to our reputation or adverse changes to our business practices. Defending against litigation is costly and time-consuming and could divert our management’s and key employees’ attention and our resources. Furthermore, during the course of litigation, there could be negative public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, which could have a negative effect on the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs.

 

Future sales, or the possibility of future sales, of a substantial number of ADSs representing our shares or our shares could adversely affect the price of such securities.

 

Future sales of a substantial number of ADSs or shares, or the perception that such sales will occur, could cause a decline in the market price of our shares or ADSs. If holders sell substantial amounts of ADSs on Nasdaq or ordinary shares on AIM, or if the market perceives that such sales may occur, the market price of the ADSs and the ordinary shares may fall and our ability to raise capital through an issue of equity securities in the future could be adversely affected.

 

The dual-listing of ordinary shares and ADSs is costly to maintain and may adversely affect the liquidity and value of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

 

Our ordinary shares trade on AIM and our ADSs trade on Nasdaq. For now, we plan to maintain a dual listing, which will generate additional costs, including increased legal, accounting, investor relations and other expenses that we did not incur prior to the listing of our ADSs on Nasdaq, in addition to the costs associated with the additional reporting requirements. We cannot predict the effect of this dual listing on the value of our ADSs and ordinary shares. However, the dual listing of ADSs and ordinary shares may dilute the liquidity of these securities in one or both markets and may adversely affect the development of an active trading market for our ADSs. The price of our ADSs could also be adversely affected by trading in our ordinary shares on AIM.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our ADSs less attractive to investors.

 

We are an emerging growth company as that term is used in the JOBS Act may remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (A) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of the Merger, (B) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (C) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our outstanding ordinary shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30, and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three year period. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:

 

  being permitted to provide only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;
     
  not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;
     
  not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements;
     
  reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation; and
     
  exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

 

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In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of these accounting standards until they would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of this extended transition period.

 

We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced reporting obligations. In particular, we have not included all of the executive compensation information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company. We cannot predict whether investors will find our ADSs less attractive if we rely on certain or all of these exemptions. If some investors find our ADSs less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ADSs and our ADS price may be more volatile.

 

We qualify as a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company. This may limit the information available to holders of our ADSs.

 

We are a foreign private issuer, as such term is defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, and report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to public companies organized within the United States. For example, we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time (including the requirement applicable to emerging growth companies to disclose the compensation of our Chief Executive Officer and the other two most highly compensated executive officers on an individual, rather than an aggregate, basis); and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K upon the occurrence of specified significant events. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers also are exempt from Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information concerning our business than there would be if we were a U.S. public company and you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of US-listed companies that are not foreign private issuers.

 

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. These practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards.

 

As a foreign private issuer listed on Nasdaq, we will be subject to corporate governance listing standards. However, Nasdaq rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country in lieu of certain Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. Certain corporate governance practices in England, which is our home country, may differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. For example, neither the corporate laws of England nor our articles of association require a majority of our directors to be independent; we may include non-independent directors as members of our nominations and remuneration committees; and our independent directors would not necessarily hold regularly scheduled meetings at which only independent directors are present. We are required to follow the AIM Rules for Companies published by London Stock Exchange plc, and have adopted the Corporate Governance Code published by the Quoted Companies Alliance. Therefore, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would have under Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. See “Management—Foreign Private Issuer Exemption” for the exemptions to the Nasdaq corporate governance rules applicable to foreign private issuers.

 

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We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional cost and expense.

 

We are a foreign private issuer, as such term is defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, however, under Rule 405, the determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on June 30, 2022.

 

In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if a majority of our shareholders, directors or management are U.S. citizens or residents and we fail to meet additional requirements necessary to avoid loss of foreign private issuer status. Although we may elect to comply with certain U.S. regulatory provisions, our loss of foreign private issuer status would make such provisions mandatory. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher. If we are not a foreign private issuer, we will be required to file periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms with the SEC, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. For example, the annual report on Form 10-K requires domestic issuers to disclose executive compensation information on an individual basis with specific disclosure regarding the domestic compensation philosophy, objectives, annual total compensation (base salary, bonus, and equity compensation) and potential payments in connection with change in control, retirement, death or disability, while the annual report on Form 20-F permits foreign private issuers to disclose compensation information on an aggregate basis.

 

We would also have to mandatorily comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors, and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. We may also be required to modify certain of our policies to comply with good governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers. Such conversion and modifications will involve additional costs. In addition, we may lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements on U.S. stock exchanges that are available to foreign private issuers.

 

We will incur increased costs as a result of simultaneously having our ADSs listed in the United States and our ordinary shares admitted to trading on AIM in the United Kingdom, and our senior management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.

 

As a company whose securities are publicly listed in the United States, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses, even though our ordinary shares are admitted to trading on AIM, and these expenses may increase after we are no longer an EGC. We will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Protection Act, as well as rules adopted, and to be adopted, by the SEC and Nasdaq. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, we expect these rules and regulations to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly, which will increase our operating expenses. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain sufficient coverage, particularly in light of recent cost increases related to coverage. We cannot accurately predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.

 

In addition, as a public company we will be required to incur additional costs and obligations in order to comply with SEC rules that implement Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Under these rules, beginning with our second annual report on Form 20-F after we become a company whose securities are publicly listed in the United States, we will be required to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, and once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we will be engaging in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are designed and operating effectively, and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting.

 

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The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation to meet the detailed standards under the rules. During the course of its testing, our management may identify material weaknesses or deficiencies which may not be remedied in time to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.

 

If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our ordinary shares are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

 

Further, being a U.S. listed company and an English public company with ordinary shares admitted to trading on AIM impacts the disclosure of information and requires compliance with two sets of applicable rules. From time to time, this may result in uncertainty regarding compliance matters and result in higher costs necessitated by legal analysis of dual legal regimes, ongoing revisions to disclosure and adherence to heightened governance practices. As a result of the enhanced disclosure requirements of the U.S. securities laws, business and financial information that we report is broadly disseminated and highly visible to investors, which we believe may increase the likelihood of threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties, which could, even if unsuccessful, divert financial resources and the attention of our management and key employees from our operations.

 

If we do not develop and implement all required accounting practices and policies, including proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to provide the financial information required of a U.S. publicly traded company in a timely and reliable manner or prevent fraud. As a result, shareholders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our shares and ADSs.

 

Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be reevaluated frequently. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. In connection with the listing, we intend to improve the process of documenting, reviewing and improving our internal controls and procedures for compliance with Section 404, which will require annual management assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. We have begun recruiting additional finance and accounting personnel with certain skill sets that we will need as an English public company listed in the U.S.

 

Implementing any appropriate changes to our internal controls may distract our officers and employees from day-to-day business operations, entail substantial costs to modify our existing processes, and take significant time to complete. These changes may not, however, be effective in maintaining the adequacy of our internal controls, and any failure to maintain that adequacy, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and harm our business.

 

Any delays or deficiencies in our internal controls could penalize us, including by limiting our ability to obtain financing, either in the public capital markets or from private sources and hurt our reputation and could thereby impede our ability to implement our growth strategy. In addition, any such delays or deficiencies could result in our failure to meet the requirements to maintain our ADSs listed on a national securities exchange.

 

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Our Articles of Association and the Deposit Agreement for our ADSs provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act and that certain claims may only be instituted in the courts of England and Wales, which could limit our securityholders’ ability to choose the judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, shareholders, officers, or others.

 

Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for U.S. federal and state courts over all causes of action arising under the Securities Act. Accordingly, both U.S. state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, we have amended our Articles of Association to provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. The Deposit Agreement similarly provides for such an exclusive forum for such causes of action. This exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions.

 

We have amended our Articles of Association to provide that any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, such as, for example, an action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or other employees, including the ability to bring such a claim, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales, and that any such claims may only be instituted in the courts of England and Wales.

 

Although we believe these exclusive forum provisions benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of U.S. federal securities laws and the laws of England and Wales in the types of lawsuits to which they apply, these provisions may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of its choosing for disputes with us or any of our directors, shareholders, officers, or others, or may increase the cost of doing so, both of which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Our shareholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder as a result of our exclusive forum provision. Further, in the event a court finds the exclusive forum provisions contained in our Articles of Association or the Deposit Agreement to be unenforceable or inapplicable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our results of operations.

 

If equity research analysts do not publish research or reports, or publish unfavorable research or reports, about us, our business or our market, the price and trading volume of our shares and ADSs could decline.

 

The trading market for our shares ADSs is influenced by the research and reports that equity research analysts publish about us and our business. As a company admitted to trading on AIM, our equity securities are currently subject to coverage by a number of analysts. Equity research analysts may elect not to provide research coverage of our ADSs, and such lack of research coverage may adversely affect the market price of our ADSs. We will not have any control over the analysts or the content and opinions included in their reports. If any of the equity research analysts who cover us downgrade our shares or ADSs or issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding us, our business model, our intellectual property or our stock performance, or if our target preclinical studies or clinical studies and/or operating results fail to meet the expectations of analysts, the price of our shares or ADSs could decline. If one or more equity research analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our shares or ADSs could decrease, which in turn could cause the trading price or trading volume of our shares or ADSs to decline.

 

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Concentration of ownership of our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs) among our existing senior management, directors and principal shareholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions and matters submitted to shareholders for approval.

 

Members of our senior management, directors and current beneficial owners of 5% or more of our ordinary shares and their respective affiliates will, in the aggregate, beneficially own approximately 35.5% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares, based on the number of ordinary shares issued and outstanding as of April 22, 2021. As a result, depending on the level of attendance at general meetings of our shareholders, these persons, acting together, would be able to significantly influence all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election, re-election and removal of directors, any merger, scheme of arrangement, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other significant corporate transactions, and amendments to our articles of association. In addition, these persons, acting together, may have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership may harm the market price of our ADSs by:

 

  delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control;
     
  entrenching our management and/or the board of directors;
     
  impeding a merger, scheme of arrangement, takeover, or other business combination involving us; or
     
  discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

 

In addition, some of these persons or entities may have interests different than yours. For example, because many of these shareholders purchased their shares at prices substantially below the current market price for an ordinary share on AIM and have held their shares for a longer period, they may be more interested in selling our company to an acquirer than other investors, or they may want us to pursue strategies that deviate from the interests of other shareholders.

 

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs) in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gains and you may never receive a return on your investment.

 

You should not rely on an investment in our ADSs to provide dividend income. Under current English law, a company’s accumulated realized profits must exceed its accumulated realized losses (on a non-consolidated basis) before dividends can be paid. Therefore, we must have distributable profits before issuing a dividend. We have never declared or paid a dividend on our ordinary shares in the past, and we currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development of our technologies and therapeutic candidates and the growth of our business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, on our ADSs will be your sole source of gains for the foreseeable future. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our ADSs.

 

Securities traded on AIM may carry a higher risk than securities traded on other exchanges, which may impact the value of your investment.

 

Our ordinary shares are currently traded on AIM. Investment in equities traded on AIM is sometimes perceived to carry a higher risk than an investment in equities quoted on exchanges with more stringent listing requirements, such as the Main Market of the London Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange or Nasdaq. This is because AIM imposes less stringent corporate governance and ongoing reporting requirements than those other exchanges. In addition, AIM requires only half-yearly, rather than quarterly, financial reporting. The value of our ordinary shares may be influenced by many factors, some of which may be specific to us and some of which may affect AIM companies generally, including the depth and liquidity of the market, our performance, a large or small volume of trading in our ordinary shares, legislative changes and general economic, political or regulatory conditions, and that the prices may be volatile and subject to extensive fluctuations. Therefore, the market price of our ordinary shares, the ADSs, or the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs, may not reflect the underlying value of our company.

 

Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the British pound sterling may increase the risk of holding ADSs and ordinary shares.

 

The share price of our ordinary shares is quoted on AIM in British pounds sterling, while our ADSs trade on Nasdaq in U.S. dollars. Fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the British pound sterling may result in differences between the value of our ADSs and the value of our ordinary shares, which may result in heavy trading by investors seeking to exploit such exchange rate differences. In addition, as a result of fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the British pound sterling, the U.S. dollar equivalent of the proceeds that a holder of the ADSs would receive upon the sale in the United Kingdom of any ordinary shares withdrawn from the depositary, and the U.S. dollar equivalent of any cash dividends paid in British pounds sterling on ordinary shares represented by the ADSs, could also decline.

 

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Holders of our ADSs have fewer rights than our shareholders and must act through the depositary to exercise their rights.

 

Holders of our ADSs do not have the same rights as our shareholders who hold our ordinary shares directly and may only exercise their voting rights with respect to the underlying ordinary shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Holders of the ADSs will appoint the depositary or its nominee as their representative to exercise the voting rights attaching to the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs. When a general meeting is convened, if you hold ADSs, you may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit you to withdraw the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs to allow you to vote with respect to any specific matter. We will use commercially reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to you in a timely manner, but we cannot assure you that you will receive voting materials in time to instruct the depositary to vote, and it is possible that you, or persons who hold their ADSs through brokers, dealers or other third parties, will not have the opportunity to exercise a right to vote. Furthermore, the depositary will not be liable for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may lack recourse if your ADSs are not voted as you request. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholders’ meeting.

 

You may be subject to limitations on transfers of your ADSs.

 

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when deemed necessary or advisable by it in good faith in connection with the performance of its duties or at our reasonable written request, subject in all cases to compliance with applicable U.S. securities laws. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason, subject to certain rights to cancel ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares. Temporary delays in the cancellation of ADSs and withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares may arise because the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books, the transfer of ordinary shares is blocked to permit voting at a shareholders’ meeting, or because we are paying a dividend on our ordinary shares or similar corporate actions.

 

The depositary for our ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services, including annual service fees.

 

The depositary for our ADSs is entitled to charge holders fees for various services, including for the issuance of ADSs upon deposit of ordinary shares (other than in the case of ADSs issued pursuant to the Merger), cancellation of ADSs, distributions of cash dividends or other cash distributions, distributions of ADSs pursuant to share dividends or other free share distributions, distributions of securities other than ADSs and annual service fees. In the case of ADSs issued by the depositary into The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), the fees will be charged by the DTC participant to the account of the applicable beneficial owner in accordance with the procedures and practices of the DTC participant as in effect at the time. The depositary for our ADSs will not generally be responsible for any United Kingdom stamp duty or stamp duty reserve tax arising upon the issuance or transfer of ADSs.

 

You may not receive distributions on our ordinary shares represented by the ADSs or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to holders of ADSs.

 

Although we do not have any present plans to declare or pay any dividends, in the event we declare and pay any dividend, the depositary for the ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of our ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, in accordance with the limitations set forth in the deposit agreement, it may be unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to holders of ADSs. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any offering of ADSs, ordinary shares or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit distribution on the ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of the ADSs. This means that you may not receive the distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value from them if it is unlawful or impractical to make them available to you. These restrictions may have an adverse effect on the value of your ADSs.

 

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Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.

 

Under English law, shareholders usually have preemptive rights to subscribe on a pro rata basis in the issuance of new shares for cash. The exercise of preemptive rights by certain shareholders not resident in the United Kingdom may be restricted by applicable law or practice in the United Kingdom and overseas jurisdictions. We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Also, under the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will not make rights available to you unless either both the rights and any related securities are registered under the Securities Act, or the distribution of them to ADS holders is exempted from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. If the depositary does not distribute the rights, it may, under the deposit agreement, either sell them, if possible, or allow them to lapse. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings. We are also permitted under English law to disapply preemptive rights (subject to the approval of our shareholders by special resolution or the inclusion in our articles of association of a power to disapply such rights) and thereby exclude certain shareholders, such as overseas shareholders, from participating in a rights offering (usually to avoid a breach of local securities laws).

 

We may be a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors owning the ADSs or our ordinary shares.

 

A non-U.S. corporation, such as our company, will be considered a Passive Foreign Investment Company (“PFIC”) for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of its gross income is passive income or (ii) at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets during a taxable year) is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income.

 

Based upon our current and projected income and assets, and projections as to the value of our assets, we do not anticipate that we will be a PFIC for the 2021 taxable year or the foreseeable future. However, no assurance can be given in this regard because the determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC is a factual determination made annually that will depend, in part, upon the composition of our income and assets, and we have not and will not obtain an opinion of counsel regarding our classification as a PFIC. Fluctuations in the market price of the ADSs may cause us to be classified as a PFIC in any taxable year because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test, including the value of our goodwill and unbooked intangibles, may be determined by reference to the market price of the ADSs from time to time (which may be volatile). If our market capitalization subsequently declines, we may be or become classified as a PFIC for the 2021 taxable year or future taxable years. Furthermore, the composition of our income and assets may also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets and any future fundraising activity. Under circumstances where our revenues from activities that produce passive income significantly increases relative to our revenues from activities that produce non-passive income, or where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes, our risk of becoming classified as a PFIC may substantially increase. It is also possible that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) may challenge the classification or valuation of 4D Pharma’s assets, including its goodwill and other unbooked intangibles, or the classification of certain amounts received by 4D Pharma, including from JPMorgan, as depositary, which may result in 4D Pharma being, or becoming classified as, a PFIC for the 2021 taxable year or future taxable years.

 

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If we were treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. investor held an ADS or an ordinary share, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to the U.S. Holder. See “Material Income Tax Considerations—U.S. Federal Income Taxes—Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations.”

 

We may be unable to use U.K., Irish and Spanish carryforward tax losses to reduce future tax payments or benefit from favorable U.K. tax legislation.

 

As a U.K. resident trading entity with Irish, Spanish, U.S, and British Virgin Islands (“BVI”) subsidiaries, we are subject to U.K. corporate taxation with Corporation tax in the other jurisdictions also applicable. Due to the nature of our business, we have generated losses since inception. As of December 31, 2020, we had gross cumulative carryforward tax losses of $53.9 million, $6.1 million and $1.0 million respectively in the UK, Ireland and Spain. With our U.S. and BVI entities having been recently formed there are no such carryforward losses. Subject to any relevant restrictions (including those that limit the percentage of profits that can be reduced by carried forward losses and those that can restrict the use of carried forward losses where there is a change of ownership of more than half the ordinary shares of the company and a major change in the nature, conduct or scale of the trade), we expect these to be available to carry forward and offset against future operating profits.

 

As a company that carries out extensive research and development activities, we benefit from the U.K. research and development tax credit (“RDEC”) regime under the scheme for small and medium-sized enterprises(“SMEs”), or in some instances we access the RDEC scheme in place of this. Under the SME scheme, we are able to surrender to the UK tax authorities some of our trading losses that arise from our qualifying research and development activities for a cash payment using an enhanced effective rate of up to 33.35% of such qualifying research and development expenditures (again subject to certain restrictions but including enhanced deductions), while the RDEC scheme offers up to 13% (10.53% after tax). We may not be able to continue to claim payable research and development tax credits under the SME Scheme in the future if we cease to qualify as an SME, based on size criteria concerning employee headcount, turnover and gross assets. Qualifying expenditures largely are comprised of employment costs for research staff, research materials, outsourced CRO costs and Research and Development (“R&D”) consulting costs incurred as part of research projects. Under the SME scheme specified subcontracted qualifying research expenditures are eligible for a cash rebate of up to 21.67% and may be ineligible to qualify for the more stringent rules of the RDEC scheme.

 

Recent proposed changes to the SME scheme, which are scheduled to begin for years commencing from April 2021, will cap the available claim under the schemes to a multiple of payroll taxes. This cap is likely to limit the value we can claim.

 

In the event we generate revenues in the future, we may benefit from the U.K. “patent box” regime that allows profits attributable to revenues from patents or patented products with a UK nexus to be taxed at an effective rate of 10%. We are the owners of several patents which cover our product candidates, and accordingly, future upfront fees, milestone fees, product revenues and royalties could be taxed at this tax rate. When taken in combination with the enhanced relief available on our research and development expenditures, we expect a long-term lower effective rate of corporation tax to apply to us. If, however, there are unexpected adverse changes to the U.K. research and development tax credit regime or the “patent box” regime, or for any reason we are unable to qualify for such advantageous tax legislation, or we are unable to use net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and certain built-in losses to reduce future tax payments, our business, results of operations, and financial condition may be adversely affected. This may impact our ongoing requirement for investment and the timeframes within which additional investment is required.

 

We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.

 

The market price of our ADSs may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.

 

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Changes and uncertainties in the tax system in the countries in which we have operations, could cause us to experience fluctuations in our tax obligations and effective tax rate materially adversely affecting our financial condition and results of operations, and reducing net returns to our shareholders.

 

We are subject to a variety of taxes and tax collection obligations in the United Kingdom and in other jurisdictions where we record tax expense, including indirect taxes, based on current tax payments and our estimates of future tax payments. We may recognize additional tax expense and be subject to additional tax liabilities, including tax collection obligations, due to changes in tax law such as legislation, including regulations, administrative practices, outcomes of court cases, and changes to the global tax framework. Further, our effective tax rate and cash taxes paid in a given financial statement period may be adversely impacted by results of our business operations including changes in the mix of costs and revenue among different jurisdictions, acquisitions, investments, entry into new geographies, the relative amount of foreign earnings, changes in foreign currency exchanges rates, changes in our stock price, intercompany transactions, changes to accounting rules, expectation of future profits, changes to trading rules post Brexit, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and our assessment of their realizability, and changes to our ownership or capital structure. Fluctuations in our tax obligations and effective tax rate could adversely affect our business.

 

In the ordinary course of our business, there are numerous transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe that our tax positions and related provisions reflected in the financial statements are fully supportable, we recognize that these tax positions and related provisions may be challenged in the future by various tax authorities. These tax positions and related provisions are reviewed on an ongoing basis and are adjusted as additional facts and information become available, including changes in interpretation of tax laws, developments in case law, and closing of statute of limitations. To the extent that the ultimate results differ from our original or adjusted estimates, our effective tax rate can be adversely affected.

 

The provision for income taxes involves a significant amount of management judgment regarding interpretation of relevant facts and laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Future changes in applicable laws, projected levels of taxable income and tax planning could change the effective tax rate and tax balances recorded by us. In addition, should tax authorities review our income tax returns filed by us then they may raise issues regarding our filing positions, timing and amount of income and deductions, and the allocation of income among the jurisdictions in which we operate. A significant period of time may elapse between the filing of an income tax return and the ultimate resolution of an issue raised by a tax authority with respect to that return. Any adjustments as a result of any examination may result in additional taxes or penalties being assessed on or imposed against us. If the ultimate result of any audit differs from original or adjusted estimates, it could have a material impact our effective tax rate and tax liabilities.

 

While we have transfer pricing policies in place for trade with subsidiaries in multiple countries the tax authorities could come to a different determination on the values and amounts of such transfers. Such a determination could lead to additional tax liabilities and may also incur fines and penalties which may have a material impact on our brought forwards losses and our tax liability.

 

At any one time, multiple tax years could be subject to audit by various taxing jurisdictions. As a result, we could be subject to higher than anticipated tax liabilities as well as ongoing variability in our disclosed tax rates as audits close and exposures are re-evaluated.

 

We continue to analyze our exposure for taxes and related liabilities and do not have provisions for current tax liabilities arising in the normal course of business as we anticipate that any such liabilities would be covered by our losses to date. We do have provisions for deferred tax liabilities relating to the increases in value arising on recognition of the fair value of acquired over the amounts paid and we had deferred tax provisions of $18 thousand at December 31, 2020.

 

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If a U.S. person is treated as owning at least 10% of our ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs), such holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

 

If a U.S. person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ordinary shares, such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to us or to any of our subsidiaries, if we or any of our subsidiaries constitute a “controlled foreign corporation” (in each case, as such terms are defined under the Code). Certain United States shareholders of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to annually report and include in its U.S. taxable income, as ordinary income, its pro rata share of  “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income” and certain investments in U.S. property by controlled foreign corporations, whether or not we make any distributions to such United States shareholder. A failure by a United States shareholder to comply with its reporting obligations may subject the United States shareholder to significant monetary penalties and other adverse tax consequences, and may extend the statute of limitations with respect to the United States shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which such reporting was due. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether we or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are controlled foreign corporations or whether any investor is a United States shareholder with respect to any such controlled foreign corporations. We also cannot guarantee that we will furnish to United States shareholders information that may be necessary for them to comply with the aforementioned obligations. United States investors should consult their own advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to their investments in us. The risk of being subject to increased taxation may deter our current shareholders from increasing their investment in us and others from investing in us, which could impact the demand for, and value of, our ADSs.

 

The rights of our shareholders may differ from the rights typically offered to shareholders of a U.S. corporation. Particularly, protections found in provisions under the U.K. Takeover Code may delay or discourage a takeover attempt, including attempts that may be beneficial to holders of our ADSs.

 

We are incorporated under English law. The rights of holders of ordinary shares and, therefore, certain of the rights of holders of our ADSs, are governed by English law, including the provisions the U.K. Companies Act and by our articles of association.

 

The U.K. Takeover Code applies, amongst other things, to an offer for a public company whose registered office is in the United Kingdom and whose securities are admitted to trading on a multilateral trading facility in the United Kingdom, which includes AIM. We are therefore subject to the Takeover Code.

 

The U.K. Takeover Code provides a framework within which takeovers of certain companies organized in the United Kingdom are regulated and conducted. The following is a brief summary of some of the most important rules of the U.K. Takeover Code:

 

In connection with a potential offer, if, following an approach by or on behalf of a potential bidder, the company is “the subject of rumor or speculation” or there is an “untoward movement” in the company’s share price, there is a requirement for the potential bidder to make a public announcement about a potential offer for the company, or for the company to make a public announcement about its review of a potential offer.

 

When a person or group of persons acting in concert (i) acquires, whether by a series of transactions over a period of time or not, interests in shares carrying 30% or more of the voting rights of a company (which percentage is treated by the Takeover Code as the level at which effective control is obtained) or (ii) increases the aggregate percentage interest they have when they are already interested in not less than 30% and not more than 50%, they must make a cash offer to all other shareholders at the highest price paid by them or any person acting in concert with them in the 12 months before the offer was announced.

 

When interests in shares carrying 10% or more of the voting rights of a class have been acquired for cash by an offeror (i.e. a bidder) or any person acting in concert with them in the offer period (i.e. before the shares subject to the offer have been acquired) or within the previous 12 months, the offer must be in cash or be accompanied by a cash alternative for all shareholders of that class at the highest price paid by the offeror or any person acting in concert with them in that period. Further, if an offeror or any person acting in concert with them acquires for cash any interest in shares during the offer period, the offer must be in cash or accompanied by a cash alternative at a price at least equal to the price paid for such shares during the offer period.

 

If after an announcement is made, the offeror or any person acting in concert with them acquires an interest in shares in an offeree company (i.e. a target) at a price higher than the value of the offer, the offer must be increased accordingly.

 

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The board of directors of the offeree company must appoint a competent independent adviser whose advice on the financial terms of the offer must be made known to all the shareholders, together with the opinion of the board of directors of the offeree company.

 

Favorable deals for selected shareholders are not permitted, except in certain circumstances where independent shareholder approval is given and the arrangements are regarded as fair and reasonable in the opinion of the financial adviser to the offeree company.

 

All shareholders must be given the same information.

 

Those issuing documents in connection with a takeover must include statements taking responsibility for the contents thereof.

 

Profit forecasts, quantified financial benefits statements and asset valuations must be made to specified standards and must be reported on by professional advisers.

 

Misleading, inaccurate or unsubstantiated statements made in documents or to the media must be publicly corrected immediately.

 

Actions during the course of an offer by the offeree company which might frustrate the offer are generally prohibited unless shareholders approve these plans. Frustrating actions would include, for example, lengthening the notice period for directors under their service contract or agreeing to sell off material parts of the target group.

 

Stringent requirements are laid down for the disclosure of dealings in relevant securities during an offer, including the prompt disclosure of positions and dealings in relevant securities by the parties to an offer and any person who is interested (directly or indirectly) in 1% or more of any class of relevant securities.

 

Employees of both the offeror and the offeree company and the trustees of the offeree company’s pension scheme must be informed about an offer. In addition, the offeree company’s employee representatives and pension scheme trustees have the right to have a separate opinion on the effects of the offer on employment appended to the offeree board of directors’ circular or published on a website.

 

As an English public company, certain capital structure decisions will require shareholder approval, which may limit our flexibility to manage our capital structure.

 

English law provides that a board of directors may only allot shares (or grant rights to subscribe for, or to convert any security into, shares) with the prior authorization of shareholders by ordinary resolution, being a resolution passed by a simple majority of votes cast at a general meeting in person or by proxy, such authorization stating the aggregate nominal amount of shares that it covers and being valid for a maximum period of five years, each as specified in the articles of association or relevant shareholder resolution. In either case, this authorization would need to be renewed by our shareholders upon expiration (i.e., at least every five years). Typically, English public companies renew the authorization of their directors to allot shares on an annual basis at their annual general meeting.

 

English law also generally provides shareholders with preemptive rights when new shares are issued for cash. However, it is possible for the articles of association, or for shareholders to pass a special resolution at a general meeting, being a resolution passed by at least 75% of the votes cast, in person or by proxy, to disapply preemptive rights. Such a disapplication of preemptive rights may be for a maximum period of up to five years from the date of adoption of the articles of association, if the disapplication is contained in the articles of association, or from the date of the shareholder special resolution, if the disapplication is by shareholder special resolution, but not longer than the duration of the authority to allot shares to which the disapplication relates. In either case, this disapplication would need to be renewed by our shareholders upon its expiration (i.e., at least every five years). Typically, English public companies renew the disapplication of preemptive rights on an annual basis at their annual general meeting.

 

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English law also generally prohibits a public company from repurchasing its own shares without the prior approval of shareholders by ordinary resolution, being a resolution passed by a simple majority of votes cast, at a general meeting in person or by proxy, and other formalities. Such approval may be for a maximum period of up to five years. See “Description of Securities—General Description of our Ordinary Shares.”

 

Claims of U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us.

 

We are incorporated under English law. All of our assets are located outside the United States. The majority of our senior management and board of directors reside outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon such persons or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against them or us, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws.

 

The United States and the United Kingdom do not currently have a treaty providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters. Consequently, a final judgment for payment given by a court in the United States, whether or not predicated solely upon U.S. securities laws, would not automatically be recognized or enforceable in England and Wales. In addition, uncertainty exists as to whether the English and Welsh courts would entertain original actions brought in England and Wales against us or our directors or senior management predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. Any final and conclusive monetary judgment for a definite sum obtained against us in U.S. courts would be treated by the courts of England and Wales as a cause of action in itself and sued upon as a debt so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary, provided that certain requirements are met consistent with English law and public policy. Whether these requirements are met in respect of a judgment based upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. securities laws is an issue for the English court making such decision. If an English court gives judgment for the sum payable under a U.S. judgment, the English judgment will be enforceable by methods generally available for this purpose.

 

As a result, U.S. investors may not be able to enforce against us or our senior management, board of directors or certain experts named herein who are residents of the United Kingdom or countries other than the United States any judgments obtained in U.S. courts in civil and commercial matters, including judgments under the U.S. federal securities laws.

 

ADS holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable results to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

 

The deposit agreement governing our ADSs provides that owners and holders of ADSs irrevocably waive the right to a trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under U.S. federal securities laws, against us or the depositary to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. If this jury trial waiver provision is prohibited by applicable law, an action could nevertheless proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. Although we are not aware of a specific federal decision that addresses the enforceability of a jury trial waiver in the context of U.S. federal securities laws, it is our understanding that jury trial waivers are generally enforceable. Moreover, insofar as the deposit agreement is governed by the laws of the State of New York, New York laws similarly recognize the validity of jury trial waivers in appropriate circumstances. In determining whether to enforce a jury trial waiver provision, New York courts and federal courts will consider whether the visibility of the jury trial waiver provision within the agreement is sufficiently prominent such that a party has knowingly waived any right to trial by jury. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs.

 

In addition, New York courts will not enforce a jury trial waiver provision in order to bar a viable setoff or counterclaim of fraud or one which is based upon a creditor’s negligence in failing to liquidate collateral upon a guarantor’s demand, or in the case of an intentional tort claim (as opposed to a contract dispute). No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any provision of U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

If any owner or holder of our ADSs brings a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under U.S. federal securities laws, such owner or holder may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different results than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action, depending on, among other things, the nature of the claims, the judge or justice hearing such claims, and the venue of the hearing.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We will receive up to an aggregate of approximately $24.9 million from the exercise of the Assumed Warrants assuming the exercise in full of all of the Assumed Warrants for cash. We expect to use the net proceeds from the exercise of the Assumed Warrants for general corporate purposes.

 

We will bear the costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the ordinary shares covered by this prospectus, including all registration and filing fees, Nasdaq listing fees, and fees of our counsel and our independent registered public accountants.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our shares and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our shares in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and expansion of our business. Under English law, among other things, we may only pay dividends if we have sufficient distributable reserves (on a non-consolidated basis), which are calculated as our accumulated realized profits that have not been previously distributed or capitalized less its accumulated realized losses, so far as such losses have not been previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

 

The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents, term deposits, indebtedness and capitalization as of December 31, 2020, as follows:

 

  On an actual basis; and
  On a pro forma combined basis to give effect to the exercise of Assumed Warrants and issuance of the ordinary shares underlying the Assumed Warrants, assuming full exercise of the Assumed Warrants for cash.

 

The pro forma combined information information below is illustrative only and our capitalization following the exercise of the Assumed Warrants and issuance of the ordinary shares underlying the Assumed Warrants will be adjusted based on the actual exercise of the Assumed Warrants according to their terms. This table should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

       December 31, 2020 
(in thousands)  Actual   Pro Forma Adjustment   Notes  Pro Forma Combined 
Cash and cash equivalents  $11,990   $24,840   (A), (B)  $36,830 
Long term liabilities   1,619            1,619 
Equity:                  
Share capital   479    56   (A), (B)   535 
Capital reserves and translation reserve   186,727    24,784   (A), (B)   211,511 
Accumulated deficit   (148,235)           (148,235)
Total equity  $38,971   $24,840      $63,811 
Total capitalization  $40,590   $24,840      $65,430 

 

  (A) Relates to the issue of 15,063,000 shares from public warrants with a par value of $0.0346 and an exercise price of $1.5269 per share
     
  (B) Relates to the issue of 1,205,040 shares from private warrants with a par value of $0.0346 and an exercise price of $1.5269 per share

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

 

The selected historical consolidated financial information for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the selected statements of financial position data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 have been derived from, and should be read in conjunction with, our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes set forth elsewhere in this annual report and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

We have not included selected historical consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 or as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 in the table below as we qualify as an EGC as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act.

 

   Year ended December 31, 
U.S. dollars in thousands, except share and per share data  2020   2019   2018 
Revenues  $690   $269    - 
Operating expenses:               
Research and development expenses   23,384    29,193    27,830 
General and administrative expenses   13,015    10,380    11,294 
Foreign currency losses (gains)   (699)   957    (234)
Total operating expenses   35,700    40,530    38,890 
Loss from operations   (35,010)   (40,261)   (38,890)
Other income (expense), net:               
Interest income   6    78    379 
Interest expense           (3)
Other income   4,496    6,883    6,378 
Change in fair value of contingent consideration payable       2,967    (465)
Total other income (expense), net   4,502    9,928    6,289 
Net loss before income tax benefit  $(30,508)  $(30,333)   (32,601)
Income tax benefit   13         
Net loss  $(30,495)  $(30,333)   (32,601)
Other comprehensive loss:               
Foreign currency translation adjustment   1,566    1,113    (3,995)
Comprehensive loss  $(28,929)  $(29,220)   (36,596)
Basic and diluted net loss per common share  $(0.27)  $(0.46)   (.50)
Weighted average common shares used in computing basic and diluted net loss per common share   114,149,743    65,493,842    65,493,842 

 

   Year ended December 31, 
U.S. dollars in thousands  2020   2019 
Balance Sheet Data:          
Cash and cash equivalents  $11,990   $5,031 
Total assets   49,099    40,826 
Total liabilities   10,128    9,639 
Accumulated deficit   (148,235)   (117,740)
Total stockholders’ equity   38,971    31,187 

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the section titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed below. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this prospectus. For a comparison of our results of operations for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, see Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of 4D Pharma included in Amendment No. 5 to our registration statement on Form F-4 (File No. 333-250986), filed with the SEC on February 24, 2021.

 

Overview

 

4D Pharma was established with the mission of leveraging the deep and varied interactions between the human body and the gut microbiome, the trillions of bacteria that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract, to develop an entirely novel class of drug: Live Biotherapeutics. We are focused on understanding how individual strains of bacteria function and how their interactions with the human host can be exploited to treat particular diseases, from cancer, respiratory, central nervous system, immunological and gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.

 

To further advance our product pipeline, we have developed MicroRx, our proprietary discovery platform. MicroRx interrogates our proprietary library of bacterial isolates for therapeutic functionality and comprehensively characterizes the bacterial isolates using a range of complementary tools and technologies. By developing a thorough understanding of the functionality and mechanism of action of our therapeutic candidates, we can develop LBPs that target disease pathology rationally and effectively, and expand our robust sector-leading patent portfolio with additional patents relating to LBP functionality.

 

To this end, our key clinical focus areas include immuno-oncology and respiratory disease, with preclinical candidates targeting CNS and autoimmune conditions. We have completed three clinical trials and currently have four more ongoing. One of our key focus areas is immuno-oncology, and with our lead immuno-oncology therapeutic candidate, MRx0518, we delivered what we believe to be the first positive proof of-concept data with a LBP in the treatment of cancer. MRx0518 is being evaluated in three ongoing clinical trials, including a Phase I/II clinical trial in solid tumors in combination with Keytruda (supplied under a free of charge supply agreement) in patients with advance or metastatic NSCLC, RCC and UC who are refractory to prior anti-PD-1/ PD-L1 therapy. Additionally, new cohorts of 10 patients with new tumor types are being enrolled in the study, including patients with TNBC, HNSCC and MSI-H high tumors. We successfully completed Part A of this Phase I/II clinical trial and Part B of the clinical trial is currently enrolling up to an additional 30 patients per tumor type and will assess clinical benefit in addition to safety. We also completed recruitment for Part A of an ongoing Phase I trial of MRx0518 as a monotherapy in patients undergoing surgical resection of solid tumors, which is being conducted at Imperial College London. We are currently redesigning Part B of this Phase I clinical trial after initial data from Part A expressed showed encouraging early biomarker readouts. Our third clinical trial of MRx0518 is a Phase I clinical trial of MRx0518 in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer in combination with hypofractionated radiotherapy, which is part of our strategic collaboration with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Meanwhile, we are engaged in business development activities with the goal of expanding the development of MRx0518 into new settings and are actively exploring additional collaboration opportunities. In February 2021, we entered into agreement with Merck KGaA and Pfizer, who co-developed and co-commercialized Bavencio (avelumab) to supply Bavencio free of charge in a future clinical trial.

 

We are also developing therapeutic candidates for our respiratory disease portfolio. MicroRx enabled the discovery of MRx-4DP0004, an immunomodulatory single strain LBP candidate that demonstrated marked effects in preclinical trials of respiratory inflammation, particularly in the lungs. A Phase I/II clinical trial of MRx-4DP0004 in partly controlled asthma is ongoing, and to our knowledge the world’s first clinical trial of an LBP in the indication. We had also begun investigating MRx4DP0004 in a Phase II clinical trial as an oral therapeutic to prevent or reduce the hyperinflammatory response in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Although this Phase II trial of MRx-4D0004 received expedited approval from the MHRA in April 2020, we decided to voluntarily discontinue enrollment in this Phase II trial of MRx-4D0004 in order to focus on our core LBP pipeline candidates due to the increase in vaccination rates, declining hospitalization rates, and progress in the MRx-4DP0004 asthma clinical trial.

 

We continue to utilize the MicroRx platform to discover promising new LBP candidates for major diseases with significant unmet need. As part of our CNS portfolio, we have identified novel LBP candidates that act upon multiple aspects of the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases in preclinical models, including gut-barrier function, neuroinflammation and protection of neurons critical to healthy CNS function. Accordingly, we are currently planning a first-in-human clinical study for our lead CNS therapeutic candidate, MRx0029, in Parkinson’s disease patients. As part of our commitment to CNS research and drug development, in December 2020, we became an industry partner of the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative, a longitudinal study sponsored by The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research to better understand Parkinson’s disease and accelerate the development of new treatments.

 

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In our gastro-intestinal disease portfolio, we currently have two LBP candidates that have completed early clinical evaluation, Blautix and Thetanix. Blautix is being developed as the first therapeutic to treat patients with IBS, regardless of clinical subtype. The Phase II clinical trial results for Blautix provide a strong foundation for the continued development of Blautix as the first therapeutic with the potential to treat both major subtypes of IBS, and this data will further development strategy around the design of a potential Phase III pivotal program. Thetanix is a single strain human gut commensal bacteria that has an anti-inflammatory mechanism and is currently under investigation for the treatment of IBD. Thetanix has an Orphan Drug Designation for pediatric Crohn’s disease from the FDA. We have successfully completed a Phase Ib clinical trial of Thetanix in pediatric Crohn’s disease patients, and we are exploring strategic options for Thetanix, including parallel development in pediatric and adult populations in both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, as well as potential partners.

 

In addition to our internal development programs, we are seeking to realize the value and potential of the MicroRx platform through collaborations in new areas. In 2019, we entered into a research collaboration and option to license agreement with MSD to discover and develop LBPs for vaccines. This collaboration pairs our proprietary MicroRx platform with MSD’s expertise in the development and commercialization of novel vaccines, to discover and develop LBPs as vaccines in up to three undisclosed indications. See “Business—Collaborations —Research Collaboration and Option to License Agreement with Merck.”

 

In 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic hit the United Kingdom, United States and other regions worldwide, affecting almost all aspects of the economy including the pharmaceutical industry in which we operate. In response we have been proactive, putting the safety of staff and patients first. We have made good use of technology to minimize disruption to our operations while protecting our staff. However, as has been seen across the biopharma industry, there have been unavoidable impacts on certain activities, resulting in some potential delays to expected clinical readouts. We continue to monitor the situation closely and will provide updates as and when the expected resolution of the situation becomes clearer.

 

In light of this unprecedented situation, we have carefully re-evaluated our strategic priorities and near to-mid-term objectives. We have taken measures to streamline the business, including changes to management structure and reducing staffing requirements, primarily relating to manufacturing, research and administrative services. We have also prioritized allocation of capital and resources to key programs, such as oncology and are set to continue to deliver key clinical value drivers for our shareholders in the coming months.

 

Key Performance Indicators

 

We track a series of metrics focused primarily on science and product development while ensuring that the business maintains both sufficient resources and effective allocation of those resources to achieve our strategic goals. The Board and management of 4D Pharma monitor the following metrics as an indicator of how we are progressing towards the goal of advancing our Live Biotherapeutic programs:

 

  1. Successful clinical trials – We are a drug development company and will realize long-term value by successfully progressing our candidates through the clinic to registration and approval. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we had one clinical trial completed through Phase II. For each of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had two clinical trials completed through Phase I/Phase II.
     
  2. Clinical trials initiated by phase – Clinical trials are essential in converting the productivity and potential of our MicroRx platform and early-stage research into long-term value. In the last year we commenced two new clinical trials, one Phase I and one Phase II. Shortly after the year ended December 31, 2019, we initiated seven clinical trials: four Phase I clinical trials; two Phase I/II clinical trials and one Phase II clinical trial. There were three clinical trials that we initiated for year ended December 31, 2018 of two Phase I clinical trials and one Phase II clinical trials.

 

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  3. Strategic collaborations – Collaborations enable us to realize the potential of our platform, leveraging the complementary expertise of our partners. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we had four strategic collaborations and three strategic collaborations for the year ended December 31, 2019. In December 2020 we became an industry partner of the PPMI, a longitudinal study sponsored by The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research to better understand Parkinson’s disease and accelerate the development of new treatments. Our representatives will join the Partner Scientific Advisory Board closely involved in the design and execution of the study, as well as a variety of PPMI Working Groups. In February 2021, we announced a clinical trial collaboration and supply agreement with Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer Inc. for Bavencio (avelumab), under which we intend to commence a clinical trial in 2021 to evaluate Bavencio in combination with MRx0518 as a first-line maintenance therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma that has not progressed with first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy. These partnerships are in addition to an ongoing strategic collaboration with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, to evaluate our Live Biotherapeutic oncology pipeline across a range of cancer settings, a clinical collaboration with MSD to evaluate MRx0518 in combination with Keytruda, an anti-PD-1 ICI marketed by MSD, in patients with in patients with metastatic solid tumors that are refractory to prior anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, and a research collaboration and option to license agreement with MSD to discover and develop vaccines derived from our proprietary gut microbiome-derived commensal bacteria selected from our culture collection for use in up to three indications, combining our MicroRx platform with MSD’s world-leading expertise in vaccine development. If MSD successfully develops vaccines under this agreement, we will be eligible to receive milestone payments of up to approximately $1 billion as well as high single-digit royalties on sales. See “Business—Collaborations” for more information on our strategic collaborations.
     
  4. Intellectual property portfolio – Intellectual property is essential to our strategy and capturing the value of our world-leading research output. We have continued to invest significantly in expanding our intellectual property rights, and by July 31, 2021, had initiated 67 patent families including over 1,200 granted patents providing coverage for our pipeline and clinical-stage candidates, manufacturing innovations and novel diagnostic approaches across major global markets.
     
  5. Cash and equivalents – We continue to invest capital from our shareholders and partners into supporting research and clinical development programs, to generate the critical data to advance this novel modality. See Liquidity and Capital Resources section below for additional information.
     
  6. Research and development spend – Investment in research and development (“R&D”) is central to our progress and returning long-term value. Our unique approach allows rapid translation from bench to bedside. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our R&D spend was $23.4 million compared to $29.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. While maintaining our strategy to invest in our clinical development programs on a long-term basis, the decrease is reflective of the effects COVID-19 has had on both our clinical trials and structure of the business after management took quick action to reduce costs.

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

We describe our significant accounting policies more fully in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We believe that the accounting policies described below and in Note 2 are critical in order to fully understand and evaluate our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. At the time of the preparation of the consolidated financial statements management is required to use estimates, evaluations, and assumptions which affect the application of the accounting policy and the amounts reported for assets, obligations, income, and expenses. Any estimates and assumptions are continually reviewed. The changes to the accounting estimates are credited during the period in which the change to the estimate is made.

 

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Revenue Recognition

 

For the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we recognized revenue from our research collaboration and option agreement. The balance of the upfront payment has been deferred. Our research collaboration and option agreement with MSD is for the development of novel vaccines (the “MSD Collaboration Agreement”). The MSD Collaboration Agreement is within the scope of ASC 606, “Revenue from Contract with Customer” (“ASC 606”).

 

Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized for arrangements determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, management performs the following five steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) we satisfy each performance obligation. We only apply the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the entity will collect consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer.

 

Performance obligations are promised goods or services in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and are considered distinct when (i) the customer can benefit from the good or service on its own or together with other readily available resources and (ii) the promised good or service is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. In assessing whether promised goods or services are distinct, management considers factors such as the stage of development of the underlying intellectual property, the capabilities of the customer to develop the intellectual property on its own or whether the required expertise is readily available and whether the goods or services are integral to or dependent on other goods or services in the contract.

 

We measure the transaction price based on the amount of consideration to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods and/or services to the customer. We utilize the “most likely amount” method to estimate the amount of variable consideration, to predict the amount of consideration to which it will be entitled for its one open contract. Amounts of variable consideration are included in the transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. At the inception of each arrangement that includes development and regulatory milestone payments, management evaluates whether the associated event is considered probable of achievement and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. Currently, we have one contract with an option to acquire exclusive licenses for identified targets for development product candidates which it evaluated and determined that it was not a material right related to the MSD Agreement.

 

We allocate the transaction price based on the estimated stand-alone selling price of each of the performance obligations. We must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation identified in a contract with a customer. We utilize key assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price for service obligations, which may include other comparable transactions, pricing considered in negotiating the transaction and the estimated costs. Additionally, in determining the standalone selling price for material rights, we may reference comparable transactions, clinical trial success probabilities, and develop estimates of option exercise likelihood. Any variable consideration is allocated specifically to one or more performance obligations in a contract when the terms of the variable consideration relate to the satisfaction of the performance obligation and the resulting amounts allocated are consistent with the amount we would expect to receive for the satisfaction of each performance obligation.

 

The consideration allocated to each performance obligation is recognized as revenue when control is transferred for the related goods or services. For performance obligations which consist of licenses and other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress. Management evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

 

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Development and regulatory milestone payments are assessed under the most likely amount method and constrained if it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would occur. Milestone payments that are not within our control or the licensee’s control, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. At the end of each reporting period, management re-evaluates the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license revenues in the period of adjustment.

 

For revenue related to sales-based royalties received from licensees, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, where the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date, we have not recognized any consideration related to sales-based royalty revenue resulting from our MSD Collaboration Agreement.

 

To the extent we receive payments, including non-refundable payments, in excess of the recognized revenue, such excess is recorded as deferred revenue until we perform our obligations under these arrangements. Amounts are recorded as accounts receivable when our right to consideration is unconditional.

 

Functional and Reporting Currency

 

Our, and our subsidiaries (other than the non-UK subsidiaries mentioned below), functional currency is the GPB. The operations of the two foreign subsidiaries are conducted in euros. Balances denominated in, or linked to, foreign currencies are stated on the basis of the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date. For foreign currency transactions included in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss, the exchange rates applicable to the relevant transaction dates are used. Transaction gains or losses arising from changes in the exchange rates used in the translation of such balances are carried to financing income or expenses. Assets and liabilities of the two subsidiaries are translated from their functional currency to GBP at the balance sheet date exchange rates. Income and expense items are translated at the average rates of exchange prevailing during the year. Translation adjustments are reflected in the consolidated balance sheets as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss.

 

Our, and our subsidiaries, reporting currency is the USD and these consolidated financial statements are presented in USD. Dollar amounts included herein are in thousands, except per share data. Stockholders’ equity is translated into USD from GBP at historical exchange rates. Assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rates as of the balance sheet date. Income and expenses are translated at the average exchange rates prevailing during the reporting period. Adjustments resulting from translating the financial statements into USD are recorded as a separate component of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss in stockholders’ equity.

 

Goodwill and Indefinite Assets

 

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets off an acquired business. Our acquired research and development is an indefinite lived asset. These assets are accounted for under FASB ASC Topic 350, “Goodwill and Other Intangibles”, under which these assets are not amortized but instead are reviewed annually, or more frequently as a result of an event or change in circumstances, for possible impairment with impaired assets written down to fair value. Management’s judgments regarding the existence of impairment indicators, on an interim or annual basis, are based on various factors, including market conditions and operational performance of our business. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had $13.5 million and $12.7 million of goodwill accounting for 27% and 31% of our total assets, respectively, and $6.2 million and $5.9 million of research and development intellectual property, respectively. We test our goodwill and indefinite lived assets for impairment at least annually. This test is conducted in December of each year in connection with the annual budgeting and forecast process. Also, on a quarterly basis, we evaluate whether events or changes in circumstances have occurred that would negatively impact the realizable value of our intangibles or goodwill.

 

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We completed our annual goodwill and indefinite lives assets impairment analysis as of December 31, 2020, for our singular reporting unit. Our assessment concluded that there was no impairment of goodwill. Our analysis employed the use of both a market and income approach, with each method given equal weighting. Significant assumptions used in the income approach include growth and discount rates, profit margins and our weighted average cost of capital. We used historical performance and management estimates (based on comparable product market data) to assess the future performance and determine profit margins and growth rates. Our weighted average cost of capital was based on market data for similar stage companies. The fair value was evaluated as being in excess of the goodwill carrying value. Considerable management judgment is necessary to evaluate the impact of operating changes and to estimate future cash flows. Changes in our actual results and/or estimates or any of our other assumptions used in our analysis could result in a different conclusion.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

We have entered into various research and development-related contracts with research institutions, CROs, contract manufacturers and other companies. These agreements are generally cancellable, and related payments are recorded as research and development expenses as incurred. Costs of certain development activities, such as manufacturing, pre-clinical and clinical trial expenses, are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual arrangements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and are reflected in the consolidated financial statements as prepaid or accrued research and development costs. Non-refundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed. Costs incurred in obtaining technology licenses are charged to research and development expense as acquired in-process research and development if the technology licensed has not reached technological feasibility and has no alternative future use.

 

Share-based Compensation

 

Equity settled share-based payment transactions are measured with reference to the fair value of equity awards at the date of grant, and recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on our estimate of shares that will eventually vest. Fair value is measured using a suitable option pricing model, which takes into account any market conditions.

 

At each reporting date before vesting, the cumulative expense is calculated, representing both the extent to which the vesting period has expired and management’s best estimate of the achievement or otherwise of non-market conditions. This calculation determines the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest with the movement in cumulative expense since the previous reporting date recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss, with a corresponding entry in equity.

 

When share-based payments have lapsed due to a failure to meet performance criteria, no expense is recognized and any previously recognized expense is reversed when the lapse occurs. Where share-based payments fail to vest as a result of market-based vesting criteria, the fair value of the award is expensed and included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss as an expense until the fair value is recognized in full.

 

Income Taxation

 

We account for income taxes under an asset and liability approach for financial accounting and reporting for income taxes. Accordingly, we recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected impact of differences between the financial statements and the tax basis of assets and liabilities.

 

We account for uncertainties in income tax law under a comprehensive model for the financial statement recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in income tax returns as prescribed by GAAP. The tax effects of a position are recognized only if it is “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained by the taxing authority as of the reporting date. If the tax position is not considered “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained, then no benefits of the position are recognized.

 

We record a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be credited to operations in the period such determination was made. Likewise, should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to operations in the period such determination was made. As of December 31, 2020, we had a valuation allowance of $16.0 million.

 

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Significant Contracts and Agreements Related to Research and Development Activities

 

Collaboration Agreements

 

MSD Collaboration Agreement

 

In October 2019, the Company entered into the MSD Collaboration Agreement. The MSD Collaboration Agreement is for the use of the Company’s MicroRx discovery platform to discover and develop LBP candidates as vaccines in up to three indications. The Company is responsible for the discovery and engineering of the LBPs.

 

Under the MSD Collaboration Agreement, the Company received a non-refundable, upfront payment, of $2.5 million, a $5.0 million equity investment, and are eligible to receive milestone payments of up to approximately $1 billion as well as high single-digit royalties on sales. The achievement and timing of the milestones depend on the success of development, approval and sales progress, if any, of vaccines in the future.

 

For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we have recognized $0.7 million and $0.3 million in collaboration revenues, respectively. Associated costs of sale of $1.3 million and $0.3 million, respectively, are included within research and development costs in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Amounts expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified as a current portion of deferred revenue in the balance sheets in our financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Amounts not expected to be recognized as revenue within the 12 months following the balance sheet date are classified as deferred revenue, net of current portion. As of December 31, 2020, we have current deferred revenues of $1.3 million and long-term deferred revenues of $0.3 million, which will be recognized as the research and development costs and labor effort are incurred, which is expected to be a three-year period.

 

MD Anderson Collaboration Agreement

 

In November 2017 we established a strategic collaboration with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, to evaluate 4D Pharma’s Live Biotherapeutic oncology pipeline across a range of cancer settings. Under the agreement, we provide funding and in-kind support for pre-clinical and clinical studies in solid tumors and radiation oncology.

 

For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we have recognized $1.7 million and $1.7 million, respectively, in costs from MD Anderson which are included within research and development costs in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.

 

Results of Operations

 

Revenues

 

We have not generated commercial revenues from product sales. To date, we have generated revenues from the collaboration agreement with MSD Collaboration Agreement.

 

Operating Expenses

 

We generally recognize operating expenses as they are incurred in two general categories, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses. Our operating expenses also include non-cash components related to depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, intangibles, and stock-based compensation, which are allocated, as appropriate to general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses.

 

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General and administrative expenses consist of salaries and related expenses for executive, legal, finance and administrative personnel, as well as professional fees, insurance costs, and other general corporate expenses. Management expects general and administrative expenses to increase in future periods as we add personnel and incurs additional expenses related to an expansion of our research and development activities and our operation as a public company, including higher legal, accounting, insurance, compliance, compensation and other expenses.

 

Patent spend has reduced overall since 2018 as we implemented various cost saving measures including limiting the territorial protection for patents protecting non-core assets and making direct contact with suppliers in foreign territories therefore bypassing intermediary markup costs.

 

Staff costs increased in 2019 in line with increases in staff numbers before the COVID-19 pandemic occurred in 2020 which resulted in the 4D Pharma’s Board taking decisive action, reducing staffing levels.

 

Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and related personnel expenses, contractual commitments, depreciation and amortization and other expenses. We charge research and development expenses to operations as they are incurred. Costs are not directly tied to a specific product candidate until such product candidate reaches the clinical trial stage. Product candidates often have more than one associated clinical trial related to different therapeutic areas or clinical indications. Once a product candidate enters a clinical trial, we track costs of such clinical trial but do not track other costs associated with specific clinical indications which are pooled.

 

The following table discloses the breakdown of research and development expenses:

 

   For the Year Ended December 31, 
(in thousands)  2020   2019   2018 
             
Contractual commitments  $12,080   $16,190   $9,958 
Staff costs   5,823    6,414    5,906 
Depreciation and amortization   1,278    1,171    1,427 
Other MicroRx research costs   3,032    1,572    6,796 
Other MicroDx research costs   79    658    1,251 
Other manufacturing research and development costs   1,092    3,187    2,492 
Total  $23,384   $29,193   $27,830 

 

Over the last year we have continued to lead the development of LBPs, further expanding our clinical development activities – generating clinical data in multiple indications while launching new trials. Meanwhile, we continued to progress promising new LBP candidates in exciting new areas like Parkinson’s disease. While we continue to rapidly progress our proprietary development candidates into and through the clinic, we are also leveraging the MicroRx platform to generate value through partnerships, such as our research collaboration with MSD in the vaccines space which serves as an example of the potential of the platform and provides a valuable endorsement from an industry leading partner.

 

In 2020 we made significant progress in the clinical development of lead immuno-oncology candidate MRx0518, launching our third clinical trial, in resectable pancreatic cancer. We also generated data from the two ongoing clinical trials of MRx0518 in different treatment settings, completing Part A of a Phase I/II combination study of MRx0518 with Keytruda in solid tumors refractory to prior anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, and completing Part A of our Phase I study of MRx0518 as a neoadjuvant monotherapy. Following successful completion of Part A, we initiated, expanded and accelerated enrolment of Part B of the MRx0518 and Keytruda combination study, with the inclusion of additional tumor type cohorts and bringing additional clinical sites on board. We also launched a Phase II clinical trial of MRx-4DP0004 as an oral therapeutic to prevent or reduce the hyperinflammatory response in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Enrollment for the ongoing Phase I/II trial of MRx-4DP0004 in partly controlled asthma was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. A Phase II clinical trial of Blautix for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (“IBS-C”) or IBS-D was completed in the period.

 

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In February 2021, we announced a clinical trial collaboration and supply agreement with Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Pfizer Inc. for Bavencio (avelumab), under which we intend to commence a clinical trial in 2021 to evaluate Bavencio in combination with MRx0518 as a first-line maintenance therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma that has not progressed with first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.

 

Costs for the year included the completion of Blautix, coupled with the three clinical trials of our therapeutic candidate, MRx0518, and the Phase I/II clinical trial of MRx-4DP0004 in partly controlled asthma and Phase II clinical trial of MRx-4DP0004 as an oral therapeutic to prevent or reduce the hyperinflammatory response in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Despite the ongoing trials above and the anticipated launch of a fourth trial of MRx0518 in 2021 in combination with Bavencio, we anticipate that our research and development expenses for 2021 will remain at a similar level to that experienced in 2020.

 

The completion of the Blautix trial in the early part of 2021 and issues with patient recruitment created by COVID-19 in our Asthma trial reduced overall contractual commitments from $16.2 million in 2019 to $12.1 million in 2020, a decrease of $4.1 million. COVID-19 then provided a point of inflection, with management taking swift action to scale back operations and cut costs or redirect resources across to other areas of study reducing a number of costs including those for MicroDx research, other manufacturing and research and development. However, there was some offset for these costs due to increases in other MicroRx research elements stemming from other items including those for the manufactured supply and development of MRx518 product.

 

Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2020 to the Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

Results of Operations

 

   For the Year Ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands)  2020   2019   2018 
Revenues  $690   $269    - 
Operating expenses:               
Research and development   23,384    29,193    27,830 
General and administrative expenses   13,015    10,380    11,294 
Foreign currency losses (gains)   (699)   957    (234)
Total operating expenses   35,700    40,530    38,890 
Operating loss   (35,010)   (40,261)   (38,890)
Other income (expense), net               
Interest income   6    78    379 
Interest expense   -    -    (3)
Other income   4,496    6,883    6,378 
Change in fair value of contingent consideration payable   -    2,967    (465)
Total other income, net   4,502    9,928    6,289 
Net loss before income tax benefit   (30,508)   (30,333)   32,601 
Income tax benefit   13    -    - 
Net loss  $(30,495)  $(30,333)   (32,601)

 

Revenues

 

We have not generated commercial revenues from product sales. To date, our sole source of generated revenues have come from our MSD Collaboration Agreement. Revenues from our MSD Collaboration Agreement totaled $0.7 million and $0.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

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Research and Development Expenses

 

Our research and development expenses totaled $23.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing a decrease of $5.8 million, or 19.9%, compared to $29.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Although costs for the running of our cancer trials increased by $1.2 million, the completion of the Blautix Ph II clinical trial in the first half of the year meant that there were no significant second half costs when compared to 2019, this created an overall reduction in costs when compared to the full year for 2019 equating to $2.5 million. Furthermore, the cumulative effect of COVID-19, which both slowed recruitment for our Asthma trails and triggered a number of costs reduction initiatives, resulted in an overall decrease in costs in other areas of $3.3 million when compared to 2019.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

Our general and administrative expenses totaled $13.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing an increase of $2.6 million, or 25.0%, compared to $10.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was related to the exploration of funding options, Nasdaq readiness, restructuring costs and increased patent costs, which were offset, in part, by reductions on staff costs and travel expenses as a result of COVID-19. General and administrative expenses are mainly attributed to staff costs, contractual commitments, legal and professional expenses patent costs, depreciation and amortization.

 

Foreign Currency Losses (Gains)

 

For foreign currency transactions included in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss, the exchange rates applicable to the relevant transaction dates are used. Transaction gains or losses arising from changes in the exchange rates used in the translation of such balances are carried to foreign currency losses (gains). We recognized foreign currency gains of $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to foreign currency losses of $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The change is due to the changes in the exchange rates.

 

Operating Loss

 

As a result of the foregoing, our operating loss totaled $35.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing a decrease of $5.3 million, or 13.2%, compared to $40.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

Interest Income

 

Interest income consists of interest earned on our short-term investments. We recognized interest income of $6 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing a decrease of $72 thousand, or 92.3%, compared to $78 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily attributable to the reduction in short-term investments during the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

Other Income

 

Other income consists of UK and Irish tax credit refunds based on a portion of our research and development expenses. This refund is treated as a governmental grant. Other income was $4.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing a decrease of $2.4 million, or 34.7%, compared to $6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was due to the decrease in research and development expenses over the prior year.

 

Change in Fair Value of Contingent Consideration Payable

 

The change in fair value of contingent consideration payable relates to payment milestones for the MicroDx platform achievable on the recruitment of a certain number of patients and on regulatory approval of a medical device following the recruitment. There was no change in the fair value of the contingent consideration payable at December 31, 2020 as the milestones had failed or the probability of failure was effectively established based on progress relative to the time-based recognition endpoints. Based on the failure of completing these milestones within the required timeframes, we reduced the fair value of the contingent consideration payable to $0 at December 31, 2019, which triggered a change in the fair value of contingent consideration income of $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

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Net Loss

 

As a result of the foregoing, our net loss was $30.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing an increase of $0.2 million, or 0.1%, compared to $30.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Overview

 

Since our inception through December 31, 2020, we have funded our operations principally from the sales of our common shares and the MSD Collaboration Agreement. As of December 31, 2020, we had $12.0 million in cash and cash equivalents.

 

The table below presents our cash flows for the periods indicated: